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Module’s Contents

Self-Awareness and The Subconscious Mind

The Necessity of Self Esteem and Confidence

Physical Fitness Theory

Muscle Fitness and Resistance Exercises

Fitness Training, Principles and Methods for The Ultimate VPO

Stress Management and Mental Preparedness in Critical Situations

The VPO and The Dangers of Assertiveness

Emotional Intelligence in the Field

Mental Preparation: Five color theory

Personality Test – Test Yourself

How to Get to Know Yourself Better – Questions

How to Get to Know Yourself Better – Answers




Self-Awareness &‌ The Unconscious Mind


What is Self-Awareness?

What Self- Awareness is NOT

Self-Monitoring vs. Self-Awareness

One Reason to Become Self-Aware

How to Become Self-Aware

Personality: One Way of Thinking About Yourself

The Big Five Personality Dimensions

Relation Between Big Five Dimensions

What is Not Personality?

Why is Personality Important?

Possible Exam Questions on Personality

Example of Bandwidth and Fidelity Issue

Usefulness of Taxonomies

Specific Traits

What is Self-Esteem? Why is it Important?

What is Not Self-Esteem?

What is Locus of Control? Why is it Important?

What is Not Locus of Control?

Specific Traits: Self-Monitoring

Ways to Describe Oneself

Goals, Motives, and Values


Why Become Self-Aware?



What Is Self-Awareness?

Ability to assess one’s personality, behaviors & skills accurately



What Self Awareness is NOT

  • Self-Monitoring
    • Extent to which you monitor, regulate &/or control behavior/appearance in social situations
      • Low self-monitors behave according to their own inner states whereas high monitors behave according to the social situation
    • E.g., I may deceive people by being friendly when I really dislike the


Self-Monitoring vs.Self-Awareness

Knowing oneself accurately (self-awareness) is different from being able to change, monitor,
or regulate
behaviors in the presence of others (self- monitoring)

Self-awareness and self-monitoring may be related to each other




One Reason to Become Self-Aware

To improve performance

High performing managers were more self-aware (Church, 97)



How to Become Self-Aware

  • Use valid & reliable tests
  • Feedback from friends & family
    • e.g., Fill out a personality survey with you in mind
  • Feedback from peers
  • Feedback from yourself
  • In different kinds of situations
  • In new situations (e.g., in unfamiliar roles)


Some Ways of Thinking About Yourself




Personality: One Way of Thinking About Yourself

What is Personality?

  • Tendency toward thinking, behaving and feeling in consistent ways across different types of situations & across time
  • E.g., Goldberg’s IPIP; others in Ch. 1 Aamodt & Raynes
    • Differentiates one person from another
    • Describes universal behaviors, thoughts & feelings

– E.g., The 5 dimensions of personality is one grouping of behaviors, thoughts & feelings



The Big Five Personality Dimensions

Based on an analysis of the relation between trait words used to describe people:

Openness: artistic, creative, broad interests, cultured, knowledgeable

Conscientiousness: careful, fussy, tidy, hardworking, neat, punctual

Extra version: extra verted, frank, talkative, fun loving, sociable

Agreeableness: acquiescent, mild, gentle, softhearted

Emotional Stability: Angry, anxious, worried, guilt- ridden, nervous


The Relation Between the Big Five Dimensions

  • The Big Five are supposed to be uncorrelated with each other
    • i.e, a score on one dimension does not predict scores on another dimension.
  • In reality, some weak correlations exist.
    • E.g., neuroticism is negatively correlated with extra version, agreeableness, & conscientiousness.



What is NOT Personality?

Behavior: Actions/reactions

  • Can be observed/measured all the time
    • E.g., Talkativeness in social situations is extra version vs. talkativeness in non-social situations is not
  • Is influenced by personality & other factors
    • E.g., Talking in class is determined by personality and reinforcement whereas talking across different social situations is determined by personality



Why is Personality Important?

  • Conscientiousness predicts
      • Job performance
      • Attendance, retention
      • Counterproductive behaviors
      • Job satisfaction
      • Income, occupational status
  • Extra version predicts
      • Performance on managerial and sales jobs
      • Income, occupational status
  • Agreeableness & Low neuroticism predicts
    Income, occupational status


Possible Exam Questions on Personality

What are your scores on the Big Five?

  • Describe a situation in which a personality dimension that describes you (e.g., extra version) played a positive role and another situation in which the same dimension played a negative role in your life.
  • What features of your personality profile are your strengths and weaknesses as a manager?
    • Learn about the job requirements of a manager


Bandwidth and Fidelity

One problem with using only personality to describe/understand yourself:

  • Bandwidth– A factor that can predict many different behaviors, feelings, etc.
  • Fidelity – A factor that can predict behaviors with high accuracy Bandwidth and fidelity are in conflict.
  • Each Big Five Factor has high bandwidth, but low fidelity
  • A specific trait has higher fidelity, but lower bandwidth than a Big Five Factor


Examples of Bandwidth and Fidelity Issue

  • Conscientiousness predicts neatness of dorm room and grades with moderate accuracy.
  • Messy predicts neatness of dorm room but not grade
  • Achievement motivation predicts grades but not neatness of dorm room.


Therefore, we study specific traits

  • Examples of Specific Traits
      • Self Esteem
      • Locus of Control
      • Self-Monitoring


What is Self Esteem?

  • View of oneself positively; approval of oneself, judging oneself as significant,capable, worthy, believe that one has desirable traits
      • I am a good person
      • I do most things well
  • Validity (aka importance of self-esteem)
      • Predicts job performance & motivation


What is Not Self Esteem?

  • Emotional Stability
      • Self-esteem is a better predictor of job performance than emotional stability.
        • Emotional stability comprises of things other than self-esteem that do not influence job performance
      • Self-esteem & emotional stability are related but not the same
  • Self-Efficacy
      • Capability to successfully perform a specific task
        • E.g., Handout items on presentation efficacy
        • Is a part but not all of self-esteem


What is Locus of Control?

General belief about control over reinforcement & environment. The extent to which individuals believe they can control their life. Accepting responsibility v blaming others.

  • Validity
      • Related to job satisfaction
      • Predicts career advancement
      • Related to effective leadership behaviors
      • Leadership performance
      • Effective Performance in stressful situations


What is Not Locus of Control?

  • Self Esteem
      • Those who judge themselves as capable, significant & worthy also see themselves as controlling their environments


Specific Traits: Self- Monitoring

  • Self-monitoring
      • Extent to which you monitor, regulate &/or control behavior/appearance in social situations
  • Validity
  • Predicts preferences for role-playing type jobs like sales, law, public relations, politics etc.
  • Predicts career success
  • Leadership behaviors in highly verbal contexts


Ways to Describe Oneself


Goals, Motives & Values

  • Goals:
      • Immediate causes of behavior
      • Concrete, specific ideal states
  • Motivations:
      • Abstract, global influences
      • Striving driving multiple behaviors
  • Values:
  • Abstract guiding principles of behavior
  • Ultimate motives



  • Intrinsic vs. Extrinsic Motivation:
  • Intrinsic – Enjoy performing task itself, challenge of task performance
  • Extrinsic – Enjoy consequence of task performance (e.g., obtain reward or avoid punishment)
  • Validity
    • Jury is out…

– i.e., Not clear if rewards reduce intrinsic motivation or just increase extrinsic motivation (topics of several student papers)


Why Become Self-Aware?

  • To improve performance
  • High performing managers were more self-aware
  • To manage yourself
    • Set appropriate goals, choose appropriate careers, manage stress
  • To understand differences between you and others
  • Understand why others react to you the way they do
  • Adapt your communication to others’ needs
  • Develop interpersonal skills
  • To accept your tendencies of behaving, thinking & feeling

Review Questions:

Check Your Understanding

      1. How many personality dimensions are there?
        1. 5.
        2. 6.
        3. 7.
        4. 8.
      2. What is self-esteem?
        1. Emotional stability.
        2. Self-efficacy.
        3. Sense of worthiness.
        4. Sense of justice.


The Necessity of Self-Esteem and Confidence


Self Esteem: What is it?

Self Esteem: What’s it made of?

The Effects of High Self Esteem

The Effects of Low Self Esteem

12 Steps to High Self Esteem


A Final Thought

What is Self Confidence?

Degrees of Self Confidence

Optimal Self Confidence



Benefits of Self Confidence

Building Self Confidence

Self-Expectations and Performance

Self-Fulfilling Prophecy

Self – Fulfilling Process

Sources of Sport Self Confidence

Assessing Self Confidence



Self-Esteem…What is it?

Self-esteem refers to the way we see and think about ourselves.


Self-Esteem… What’s it made of?

Your self-esteem is made up of all the experiences and interpersonal relationships you’ve had in your life.

Everyone you’ve ever met has added to or taken away from how you see yourself!



The Effects of High Self- Esteem

  • People with high self-esteem possess the following characteristics:
  • They like to meet new people.
  • They don’t worry about how others will judge them.
  • They have the courage to express themselves.
  • Their lives are enriched with each new encounter.
  • They are nice to be around.
  • Their ideas are met with interest because others want to hear what they have to say.
  • They are magnets to positive opportunities!



The Effects of Low Self-Esteem

  • People with low self-esteem possess the following characteristics:
  • They don’t believe in themselves.
  • They see themselves failing before they begin.
  • They have a hard time forgiving their mistakes and make themselves punish themselves forever.
  • They believe they can never be as good as they should be or as others.
  • They are dissatisfied with their lives.
  • They spend most of their time alone.
  • They complain and criticize.
  • They worry about everything and do nothing.




12 Steps to High Self-Esteem

  • Step 1
  1. Forgive yourself for past mistakes.
  • Step 2
  1. Focus on your positive attributes.
  • Step 3
  1. Follow the example of successful people.
  • Step 4
  1. Become a self-talker.
  • Step 5
  1. Exhibit a good attitude.
  • Step 6
  1. Get plenty of rest.
  • Step 7
  1. Make your work skills your own
  • Step 8
  1. Practice your talents
  • Step 9
  1. Become physically fit.
  • Step 10
  1. Learn new things.
  • Step 11
  1. Improve your personal relationships.
  • Step 12
  1. Dress well!








Let’s Review

  • Self-esteem comes from every experience of your life.
  • How you view yourself affects everything you do in life.
  • High self-esteem gives you a GOOD feeling about yourself.
  • Low self-esteem distorts your view of yourself.
  • Self-esteem can be improved!


Final Thought

  • You are a unique individual.
  • No one else is like you in the whole world.
  • This makes you special already!
  • Our time in this world is limited.
  • Make it happen for you so you leave your mark in history!





Review Questions:

Check Your Understanding

  1. What is a characteristic of low self-esteem?
    1. They believe in themselves.
    2. They are winners.
    3. They complain and criticize.
    4. They get plenty of rest.
  2. What is a characteristic of high self-esteem?
    1. They have the courage to express themselves.
    2. They are difficult to be around.
    3. They don’t like to socialize.
    4. They worry about meeting new people.







What is Self Confidence?

  • The most consistent factor separating highly successful athletes from the less successful is confidence.
  • Successful athletes know the key to success is believing in themselves.
  • They radiate self confidence in their play.
  • Coaches know that athletes need self-confidence to win.
  • They also know that athletes need to win to develop self-confidence.
  • The puzzle is how to get the winning/increased self-confidence/winning spiral, which breeds success and to get off the losing/ increased diffidence/losing spiral which yields failure.
  • Many people believe self-confidence is believing they will succeed.
  • They are told that if they do not feel positive about succeeding, they are thinking like losers.
  • It is this mistaken belief about what self-confidence is that often leads to lack of self-confidence.
  • True self-confidence is an athlete’s realistic expectations about achieving success.
  • It is not involved with what athletes hope to do but with what they realistically expect to do.
  • It is the belief that you can successfully perform a desired behaviour.


Self-confidence is to expect success
  • Confident people believe in:
    • Themselves.
    • Their ability to acquire skills and competencies both physical and mental.
    • Their ability to reach their potential.
  • Less confident people doubt:
  • Whether they are good enough,
  • Or if they have what it takes to be successful.


Degrees of Self Confidence

  • People experience degrees of self-confidence as follows:
    1. Too little confidence (diffidence).
    2. Optimum confidence (self – confidence).
    3. Too much confidence or false confidence (overconfidence).
  • Therefore, self-confidence represents a continuum from diffidence to overconfidence with optimum (self – confidence) somewhere in between.
  • As self-confidence increases up to some level performance improves.
  • But when it increases beyond the optimal level, performance begins to deteriorate.
  • It deteriorates because overconfidence deludes people into believing they are so gifted that they need not prepare diligently.


Optimal Self Confidence

  • Optimal self – confidence is a sign that convinces you that you can achieve your goals.
  • However physical skills and knowledge of the sport help you realize your desired behavior.
  • Self-confidence and competence must be developed together, each nurturing the other.
  • Possessing self – confidence in the absence of competence will lead to false confidence.




  • Diffident people are afraid of failure and become psychological prisoners of their own negative self- images.
  • They see themselves as losers and become losers.
  • The self – doubts of diffident people affects their performance by creating anxiety, loss of concentration and uncertainty of purpose.
  • Diffident people become self-fulfilling prophecies and consequently fall from the ladder of success.




  • Overconfident athletes are falsely confident.
  • Their confidence is greater than their competencies warrant.
  • Two types of overconfident athletes include;
    1. Those who believe they are better than they really are.
    2. Those who behave confidently on the outside yet underneath are actually diffident and worried about failing.
  • Overconfident athletes avoid situations that threaten their self- confidence.
  • Or find behaviours to protect their fragile egos such as faking injury when they perform poorly.
  • The false confident:
    • Find it difficult to admit their errors
    • Are abounding with excuses.
    • Are often difficult to coach because they will not accept responsibility for their mistakes.


Benefits of Self Confidence


  • Positive emotions- being calm, assertive and relaxed under pressure.
  • Concentration – the capacity to focus on relevant cues.
  • Goals – setting and fulfilling challenging goals.
  • Effort- persists in pursuit of achieving the desired result.
  • Game strategies – “playing to win” not “playing to loose”
  • Momentum- displaying a never give up attitude.



Building Self Confidence


Confidence can be improved through the following:

  • Performance accomplishments– good practices that are well prepared develop confidence.
  • Acting confidently– The more you act confidently the more you become confident (“fake it till you make it”).
  • Thinking confidently – A positive attitude is critical to reaching your optimal potential.
  • Imagery – imagining doing the thing that you have had difficult in doing.
  • Physical conditioning – Good attributes constitute a key to feeling confident (speed, strength, endurance & flexibility).
  • Preparation – being prepared gives you confidence that you have done everything possible to ensure success.


Self –Expectations and Performance

  • Positive expectations for success produce positive effects.
  • Expecting to beat a tough opponent or perform a difficult task can produce exceptional performance.



Self- Fulfilling Prophecy (SFP)

Occurs when managers’ expectations prompt workers to behave or perform
in a way that conforms to those expectations.



Self – Fulfilling Process

Can be described as a series of four key steps:

    1. Bosses develop expectations for how employee should perform.
    2. Boss’s expectations influence their treatment of individual performers (i.e. frequency, duration, and quality of interactions).
    3. Bosses behaviour affects employee’s rate of learning and level of performance.
    4. The cycle is completed if the employee’s behaviour or performance conforms to the boss’s expectations.


Sources of Sport Self Confidence

There are nine sources of confidence specific to sport:

    1. Mastery – developing and improving skills.
    2. Demonstration of ability – showing ability by winning and out performing opponents.
    3. Physical and mental preparation – staying focused on goals and prepared to give maximum effort.
    4. Physical self-presentation – athlete feeling good about own body and weight.
    5. Social support – getting encouragement from team- mates, coaches and family.
    6. Coaches’ leadership – trusting the coaches’ decisions and believing in their abilities.
    7. Vicarious experience – seeing other athletes perform successfully.
    8. Environmental comfort – athlete feeling comfortable in the environment he/she is performing in.
    9. Situational favourableness– athlete seeing breaks going her/his way and feeling everything is going right.



Assessing Self Confidence


  • It is important that people identify confidence in a variety of situations.
  • People may do this by answering the following questions:
    • When am I confident?
    • How do I recover from mistakes?
    • When do I have self-doubts?
    • Is my confidence consistent throughout the event?
    • Am I tentative and indecisive in certain situations?
    • Do I look forward to and enjoy tough, highly competitive challenges?
    • How do I react to adversity?



Review Questions:

Check Your Understanding

      1. How many degrees of self-confidence are there?
        1. 1.
        2. 2.
        3. 3.
        4. 4.
      2. What are diffident people?
        1. Highly confident people.
        2. People who see themselves are winners.
        3. People with no doubt.
        4. People who see themselves as losers.




Physical Fitness as an Important Part of the VPO


Components of Health

Benefits of Physical Fitness

Components of Physical Fitness

Resting Heart Rate & Target Heart Rate Zone

Physical Activity Program

Goal Setting “S.M.A.R.T”

Fitness Training Principles

The Individual and Their Requirements

Specific Fitness Components

Principles of Training

Circuit Training



Components of Healthy Living?

Health is the combination of your physical, mental / emotional and social well being.


  • Physical Health is the way the parts and systems of your body work together. Does your body have the ability to cope with the stresses of daily life?
      • Proper nutrition
      • Regular exercise
      • Rest & sleep
      • Good hygiene to prevent disease
      • Regular medical & dental checkups
      • Resisting harmful substances
  • Mental/Emotional Health includes your feelings about yourself, how you relate to others and how you meet the demands of daily life.
      • Thinking skills
      • Enjoy learning
      • See mistakes as opportunities to learn
      • Accept responsibility for actions
      • In touch with feelings
      • Dealing with problems and frustrations


  • Social Health involves the way you get along with others.
      • Ability to make friends
      • Ability to co-operate with others
      • Using good communication skills
      • Showing respect for self & others



What is Physical Fitness?

The ability to carry out daily tasks easily and have enough reserve energy
to respond to unexpected demands.



Benefits of Physical Activity

  • Increase energy
  • Strengthens bones
  • Longer life (longevity)
  • Improved quality of life
  • Decrease risk of heart disease
  • Improve heart & lung efficiency
  • Decrease risk of diabetes
  • Joint stability
  • Muscular strength
  • Improve posture
  • Increase muscle mass & decrease body fat
  • Increase metabolism
  • Improves core strength
  • Improve back strength
  • Improves balance, coordination & agility
  • Improves body image & self esteem
  • Reduces depression & anxiety
  • Assists in stress management















Components of Physical Fitness

  • Cardiorespiratory Fitness
  • Muscular Endurance
  • Muscular Strength
  • Flexibility
  • Body Composition
  • Balance
  • Coordination
  • Agility
  • Speed
  • Power






Cardiorespiratory Endurance

  • What is it?
    • The ability of the heart, lungs and blood vessels to utilize and send fuel and oxygen to the body’s tissues during long periods of moderate to vigorous activity.
    • Tests to measure?
    • Beep Test, 12 min run, mile run, Resting heart rate
    • Sports & Activities?
    • Swimming, jogging, aerobic workouts, hiking, mountain biking, basketball, track


Muscular Endurance

  • What is it?
    • The ability of the muscles to perform physical tasks over a period without becoming fatigued.
    • Tests to measure?
    • Curl ups, push-ups, wall sit, plank
    • Sports & Activities?
    • Rowing, snow shoveling, wall climbing, Boxing



Muscular Strength

  • What is it?
    • The amount of force a muscle can exert in a single contraction (lifting, pushing or pulling).
    • Tests to measure?
    • Maximum repetition
    • Sports & Activities?
    • Weight lifting
    • Arm wrestling



  • What is it?
    • The ability to move a body part through a full range of motion. It is joint specific.
    • Reduces the risk of muscle strains, injuries & soreness
    • Tests to measure?
    • Sit & Reach
    • Sports & Activities?
    • Yoga, stretching, dance, gymnastics, figure skating, martial arts


Body Composition

  • What is it?
    • The ratio of fat-free mass (muscle, bone, blood, organs and fluids) to fat mass (adipose tissue deposited under the skill and around organs).
    • Too much body fat increases the risk of cardiovascular problems and puts stress on organs.
    • Too little may cause weak bones, irregular heart rate, anemia, lack of co- ordination.
    • Tests to measure?
    • Skinfold caliper (pinch test)
    • Home body fat scales
    • Hydrostatic weighting
    • Fat Burning Activities?
    • Jogging, aerobics, biking, stair climbing, proper nutrition



Secondary Components of Fitness

  • Balance:
    • The ability to maintain a specific body position in either a stationary or dynamic situation
  • Coordination:
    • The ability to use all body parts together to produce a smooth and fluid motion.
  • Agility:
    • The ability to change direction very quickly.
  • Speed:
    • The ability to move rapidly; also called velocity (the rate of motion).
  • Power:
    • The product of force and velocity (the time rate of doing work) also known as explosive strength.


Resting Heart Rate

  • Your resting heart rate is the number of times your heart beats in one minute when you are not active.
  • Your RHR is a good indicator of your fitness level
  • Average RHR is 72 to 84 BPM
  • Good Fitness level = below 72 BPM
  • Poor Fitness level = above 84 BPM


  • Factors that affect RHR
  • Gender – on average, women have RHR’s 5-10 beats faster than men.
  • Size – individuals with more fat have higher RHR’s due to the extra stress placed on the body.
  • Temperature – an increase in body temperature will increase RHR (when you have a fever).
  • Posture – RHR is lower when lying down than when sitting or standing.
  • Stress – people under stress usually have higher RHR’s.


Target Heart Rate Zone

  • The zone is between 65% to 85% of your maximum heart rate.
  • Pulse can be taken on two sites – carotid artery (neck) or radial artery (wrist)
  • Counting should start within 5 seconds of exercise ending and start with 0.
  • Count the number of beats in 10 seconds then multiply by 6 for beats per minute


Pulse Check Sites

Calculate Your Target Heart Rate Zone

    • This is how your Target Heart Rate Zone is calculated:
    • Case Study: Ms. Smith Age = 35
    • To get your maximum heart rate you need to subtract age from 220.220 – 35 = 185 bpm
    • Maximum heart rate = 185 bpmYou then calculate:
    • Lower Limit = 65% of 185 = 120
    • Upper Limit = 85% of 185 = 157
    • So, Ms. Smith’s Target Heart Rate Zone is between 120 – 157 beats per minute
    • Maximum Heart Rate:220 -=bpmYour age Max. HR
    • Target Heart Rate Zone:65% x=bpm Lower LimitMax. HR85% x=bpm Upper LimitMax. HR

Physical Activity Program

      1. Warm-up – An activity that prepares the muscles for work. Gradual increase in heart rate.
        • Light locomotor
        • Head to toe Stretch
      2. The Workout
    • How often? How hard? How long? How to choose the right exercise?
    • The F.I.T.T. Principle of Exercise is an easy way to remember the key components of exercise prescription


F.I.T.T. Principle

Frequency: How often to exercise?

  • Workout 3-4 times per week
  • Rest for 48 hours between sessions for muscle growth & repair
  • Intensity: How hard to exercise?
  • Work muscles at an intensity that is harder than normal.
  • In Cardio activities, work towards your target heart rate zone.
  • Time: How long to exercise?
  • Cardio sessions: 20-30 minutes in your target heart rate zone
  • Muscular endurance/strength: do a variety of exercises for all major muscles lasting 20-30 minutes.
  • Type: How to choose an exercise?
  • Total body Exercise program: 75-80% of your workout is cardio and 20-25% is Resistance training.
  • Pick activities that you enjoy, are safe and work the area of fitness desired.


Physical Activity Program

  1. The Cool down – An activity that prepares the muscles to return to a resting state. Ending the workout abruptly can cause muscles to tighten and make you dizzy.
    • Head to toe Stretch
    • Slow breathing
    • Relaxation techniques

Goal Setting

    • How can you be sure to include physical activity in your daily routine?
    • The first step is to set realistic fitness goals and then develop a plan to meet your goals.


    • The SMART system of goal setting
    • Your goals should be:
      1. Specific – clearly state what you want to achieve (i.e. improvement in muscular endurance of abdominals)
      2. Measurable – so you know if you have achieved your goal (i.e. 60 curl ups in 1 minute)
      3. Action-oriented – A written plan of action that may include short & long term actions. (i.e. Do 25 crunches each morning & night at home.)
      4. Realistic – Make sure the goals & actions you set are something that you can actually accomplish.
      5. Things to consider:
  • Your genetic Characteristics (body type)
  • Your personal preferences (things you like to do)
  • Daily obligations (home, work, school)
  • Availability of Facilities & Equipment
  • Timed Goals – Set a target date to achieve your goal.


Fitness Training Principles

Physical Education Theory


Fitness Training Principles

    • In preparing your exercise programme, you need to bear in mind the following:
      • The individual and their requirements
      • Specific components of fitness
      • Warm up and Cool down


The Individual and Their Requirements

  • First you must establish the purpose of the exercise program. There are many reasons why an individual may wish to undertake a personal exercise programme: to lose weight, to regain fitness for competition, after a lay-off, because of injury, and so on.
  • Whatever the reason may be, it will influence the nature and possibly the severity of the programme you intend to plan.
  • An initial assessment may also need to be reviewed every so often in the light of progress and any change of circumstances: for example, illness or periods when commitments at work make it difficult to find time to exercise.
  • There are two important questions to be asked when planning a personal exercise programme.
    • Is the training programme for general health and well-being?
    • Is the training programme for a specific activity?
  • The answer will affect the type of programme you plan.


Specific Fitness Components

  • With regard to the content of the programme, a general exercise programme will need to address a wide range of fitness components. An activity-specific programme will need, in addition, to concentrate on those components identified as relevant.
  • You may decide to work on all the components of fitness but select no more than four or five of them to be part of any one exercise session.


Specific Activity

  • Your programme might be designed to improve fitness for a specific activity. Nevertheless, it might still be advisable to ensure that an all-round programme of exercise comes before more specialised work.
  • Example – In the case of a shot-putter, flexibility, agility and cardiovascular endurance might be addressed as part of both warm up and cool down routines so that the body can concentrate on the areas used for the event.
  • We can call this – event-specific components of fitness.
    • Week 1 Strength, Co-ordination, Timing.
    • Week 2 Muscular Endurance, Speed of Reaction.
    • Week 3 Strength, Co-ordination, Timing.



Fitness Components

  • Cardiovascular Endurance
  • Muscular Endurance
  • Strength
  • Flexibility
  • Agility
  • Balance
  • Co-ordination
  • Speed of Reaction
  • Timing


Warm Up and Cool Down

  • Why warm up?
  • The body needs to be well prepared for physical exercise. It is not such a good idea to suddenly begin strenuous activity and expect the body’s systems to adapt instantly without injury. As part of this preparation we need to ensure the following…
    1. Pulse rate should be gradually raised.
    2. Joint flexibility should be addressed through a series of moderate stretching and mobility exercises.
    3. Skills that are part of the activity can be part of your warm up.
    4. Performer to become mentally focused on the activity.
  • Why cool down?
  • The purpose of the cool down is, in many respects, the exact opposite of the warm up. During exercise, the heart rate is much faster than normal and blood is being pumped around the body at a higher rate. Suddenly stopping this physical activity will cause blood to pool in the bodies tissues, which effectively then has nowhere to go. If the heart slows down too quickly, this can also slow down the removal of lactic acid from the muscle tissues and can cause muscle soreness when the body finally cools down.



Warm up and Cool down environment

  • Where possible the warm-up environment should resemble that of the competition.
  • Example – Swimmers should warm up in a practice pool, weightlifters should warm up in a weight-room.


Principles of Training

  • We need to train to improve our fitness. For steady progress and to avoid injury we should follow the SPORT principles:
    • Specificity
    • Progression
    • Overload
    • Reversibility
    • Tedium



  • Every type of exercise has a particular effect on the body. The type of training we choose must be right for the type of improvement we want to see.
  • We must always use a training programme that puts regular stress on the muscle groups or body system that we want to develop.
  • Sprinters
  • Sprinters include lots of speed work in their training. This helps to develop their fast twitch muscle fibres.
  • Endurance Athletes
  • Endurance athletes need to develop their slow twitch muscle fibres. They train over longer distances for a longer time.
  • Game Players
  • Game players include both speed and endurance training into their programme, developing both types of muscle fibres.
  • Progression
  • The body takes time to adapt to more frequent or harder exercise. We must build up stress on our bodies in a gradual, or progressive way – by lifting heavier weights or running further.
  • What do you think will happen if we build up stress on the body too quickly or too slowly?




  • Quite simply, we can only achieve improvements in most aspects of physical performance by forcing the body to work beyond its current known limits. In other words, we overload it.
  • Example – to improve our aerobic fitness by running, we could run more times a week, complete the run in a shorter time or increase the distance we run. Each one of these will overload the aerobic system. The aerobic system will gradually adapt to cope with the overload and we will become fitter.




  • The process of reversibility applies to most aspects of physical performance. It means that the effects (or improvements) of training will be lost at about one third of the rate at which they were gained.
  • We lose our aerobic fitness more easily than our anaerobic fitness because our muscles quickly lose much of their ability to use oxygen.
  • Our anaerobic fitness is affected less by not training. If we follow a strength-training programme for 4 weeks, we will lose our gains in strength after about 12 weeks of inactivity.




  • Our training programme must be varied to avoid tedium – boredom. By using a variety of different training methods, we will keep our enthusiasm and motivation.
  • We can follow a long work out with a short one, a hard session with a relaxed one or a high-speed session with a slow one.
  • We may be able to change the way we train and where we train.
  • Vary the way we train – shin splints can be avoided by running on grass rather than on hard roads.
  • Circuit Training is an excellent way to avoid Tedium.


Circuit Training

  • What Is It?
  • Circuit training consists of a series of exercises performed sequentially.
  • Circuit training can include a combination of aerobic and strength exercises. An example of the mix might include jogging, jumping rope, push-ups, crunches, lunges, bench press, and squats (it’s for you to decide). The cycle can take anywhere from 10 minutes to over an hour to complete depending on your ability.
  • Beginners should just walk through the motions the first time so they know what to expect.



Review Questions:

Check Your Understanding

    1. What is the average range for a resting heart rate?
      1. Between 72 to 84 BPM.
      2. Below 72 BPM.
      3. Above 84 BPM.
    2. Where is it best to check your pulse?
      1. Stomach.
      2. Foot.
      3. Neck.
      4. Ear.





Ultimate Exercises for the VPO:

Muscle Fitness and Resistance Exercises


Muscle Fitness and Resistance Exercises


Factors influencing strength

Facts about resistance training

Health benefits of muscular fitness

Other benefits of muscular fitness

Types of PRE

Choice of equipment

Repetition Continuum

Stimulus for Strength: Target Zone

Stimulus for Endurance: Target Zone

Stimulus for Overall Muscle Fitness (Target Zone)

Training Principles of PRE

Is there strength in a bottle?

Guidelines for safe & effective resistance training

Concepts in resistance training

Developing a resistance training program



Muscle Fitness and Resistance Exercises

Progressive resistance exercise promotes muscle fitness that permits efficient and effective movement, contributes to ease and economy of muscular effort, promotes successful performance, and lowers susceptibility to some types of injuries, musculoskeletal problems, and some illnesses.



  • Weight training
  • Progressive Resistance Exercise (PRE) – is the type of physical activity done with the intent of improving muscle fitness.
  • Weight lifting – Weight lifting is a competitive sport that involves two lifts: the Snatch and the Clean and Jerk.
  • Powerlifting – also a competitive sport, includes three lifts: the Bench Press, the Squat, and the Dead Lift.
  • Bodybuilding – is a competition in which participants are judged on the size and definition of their muscles.


Muscular Strength

  • Able to lift a heavy weight
  • Able to exert a great force


Muscular Endurance

Able to perform repeated muscular contractions



Factors Influencing Strength

  • Type of muscle tissue – The three types of muscle tissue—smooth, cardiac, and skeletal—have different structures and functions.
  • Gender – males stronger than females
    • Testosterone builds muscle (anabolic effects)
    • Lower amounts of body fat allows greater LBM
  • Age – strength decreases with age (ex: elderly)
    • Muscular strength = getting out of a chair
    • Muscular endurance = walking around the house
  • Anatomy (leverage) – The body built as a system of levers. The longer the lever arm the greater the strength for a muscle- The ability to increase strength depends on type of muscle fibers



  • Anabolic steroids
  • Human growth hormone
Note: These drugs are highly dangerous and have permanent and life threatening consequences


Facts about Resistance Training

  • Everyone can gain strength and endurance
  • NOT everyone will improve to the same extent (genetic predisposition)
  •  Adaptations depend largely on the muscle fibers type distribution. Fast twitch muscle fibers adapt more readily.


Health Benefits of Muscular Fitness

Strength and muscular endurance promote muscular fitness and provide important health benefits

  • Avoiding back problems
  • Good posture
  • Reducing risks of injury
  • Reducing risks of osteoporosis


Other Benefits of Muscular Fitness

  • Weight control – In addition to other benefits, building up muscle mass helps to maintain BMR and promote long term weight control.
  • Increased wellness
  • Look good
  • Feel good – Muscular fitness can promote self esteem
  • Core strength
  • Abdominal, para-spinal (back), gluteal muscles
  • Improved performance – Fit muscles improve performance in sports and don’t tire as easily during leisure activities


Types of PRE


  • Isotonic (dynamic strength/endurance)
    • Concentric
    • Eccentric
    • Plyometric
  • Isometric (static strength/endurance)
  • Isokinetic
  • Functional balance training
  • Core strength and balance
  • Isotonic exercises are the most common type of PRE. When isotonic exercises are performed the muscles shorten and lengthen to cause movement. The most common types of isotonic exercises are calisthenics, resistance machine exercises, free weight exercises, and exercises using other types of resistance such as exercise bands. Isotonic exercise allows for the use of resistance through a full range of joint motion and provides an effective stimulus for muscle development.
  • When performing isotonic exercise, both concentric (shortening) and eccentric (lengthening) contractions should be used. For example: in the overhead press exercise, the muscles on the back of the arms (triceps) shorten (contract concentrically) to overcome resistance or lift a weight. When the same muscles contract eccentrically, lengthening occurs allowing a slow and controlled return of the muscle to its normal length.
  • Because isotonic exercises involve movement against a resistance such as a resistance machine or lifting of a weight when using free weights, it is helpful for building both dynamic strength and dynamic muscular endurance. Dynamic refers to movement, so strength and muscular endurance that causes movement are referred to as dynamic.
  • Isometric exercises are those in which no movement takes place while a force is exerted against an immovable object.
  • Isokinetic exercises are isotonic-concentric muscle contractions performed on machines that keep the velocity of the movement constant through the full range of motion.


Choice of Equipment

    1. Weight Machines
    2. Free Weights

There are advantages to both types of equipment

Some advantages of machines are: easy, quick to use, safer, and variable resistance in which the resistance is varied throughout the range of motion to more closely accommodate natural strength curves (ex. Nautilus). Some advantages of free weights are: balanced muscle development, more challenging and rewarding, more adaptable to natural body movements.

Free weights require more time and are more dangerous than machine weights, therefore most beginners should opt for machines when beginning a program.









Repetition Continuum

Diagram shows the repetition continuum

Strength is developed with Hi weight / Lo reps

Endurance is developed with Lo weights / Hi reps


Stimulus for Strength

Target Zone

  • Maximal exertion
  • Maximal force



Stimulus for Endurance

(Target Zone)

  • Higher number of repetitions
  • Short rest intervals


Stimulus for Overall Muscle Fitness

(Target Zone)


A general muscular fitness program should develop some strength and some endurance. The program should incorporate exercises for every major muscle group. Muscle imbalances can lead to injury and are odd looking (example: Popeye – big arms, small legs)

F: 3x per week

I: 40-60% of 1 repetition maximum; 40-50% 1RM >50 years old

T: 2-3 sets of 8-15 repetitions


Training Principles of PRE

  • Overload – You have to do more than you are used to in order to cause your muscles to adapt
  • Progression – You must build up slowly or risk getting injured or too sore.
  • Specificity – The adaptations are specific for the muscle groups being exercised. Another application of this principle is that the gains from resistance training may not always translate to an increased performance in sports.
  • Diminishing Returns
  • Rest / Recovery – You must give the body enough time to recover between workouts.



Is There Strength in a Bottle?

  • Taking anabolic steroids is a dangerous way to build muscle fitness and is illegal.o Injuries happen more easily and last longer in people who use steroids.
  • Androstenedione and THG are not safe alternatives to steroids.
  • Human growth hormone (HGH) may be even more dangerous than anabolic steroids.
  • Creatine use is becoming increasingly popular among people training for strength development.
  • The safety and efficacy of many strength-related dietary supplements are not established.



Guidelines for Safe & Effective Resistance Training

  • Start slowly – Helps to avoid excessive soreness
  • Use good technique
    • Lift in a controlled manner
    • Exhale during effort
    • Bring weight down slowly
  • Allow time for recovery – (muscles need to rest to adapt)
  • Include all body parts and balance strength of antagonistic muscle groups
  • Expect plateaus – Plateaus are common in weight training. Improvements will be rapid initially but will level off. Often it is necessary to try different routines or use a form of “periodization (structured phases in a program) to move past a plateau.
  • Customize program to fit your needs


Fallacies about Resistance Training

  • No pain – no gain – You don’t need to hurt to get benefits from exercise. The myth is based on overload principle which states that you must challenge your body to improve.
  • Makes you “muscle bound” – Weight training can increase flexibility if through full ROM
  • Fat can be converted into muscle – Fat and muscle are separate tissues and you cannot promote local fat loss by exercising a certain area.
  • Extra muscle turns to fat if not used – A higher muscle mass causes a corresponding increase in BMR and total energy expenditure. Without training, muscle mass is lost. If a person ceases training and keeps eating the same amount, the extra calories are converted to fat (Muscle does not turn into fat).
  • Has masculinizing effect on women – Women won’t develop same muscles as men because they do not have as much testosterone


Concepts in Resistance Training

  • “The pump” – Muscles aren’t magically growing before your eyes. The increased size following a workout is due to blood trapped in muscles (venous return)
  • Strength gain – (several mechanisms)
    1. Neuromuscular- body improves ability to recruit motor units
    2. Hypertrophy (increased muscle size) – strength depends on cross sectional area of muscle
    3. Hyperplasia (increased muscle cell number) – only seen in elite weightlifter
  • Muscle fatigue – what causes muscles to tire out?When muscles produce too much LA, the PH of the cells decreases and muscles can’t contract effectively. With repeated lifting some of the motor units become fatigued and the body has to recruit new motor units that may be less conditioned.
  • Muscle soreness – What causes muscles to feel sore?Various theories exist. Some say it is due to a lack of oxygen in the area, others say it is due to connective tissue damage in the fibers
  • Tone? – What is Tone?Usually people refer to tone as being definition. It requires good muscle development and also a low percent body fat. You cannot turn fat into muscle and gain “tone”.



Developing a Resistance Training Program

  • Set goals
  • Type of program
  • Choice of equipment
  • Muscle groups
  • Order of exercises
  • Format for sets



Muscle Fiber Types

  • Fast Twitch Fibers
    • Stain light in color
    • More anaerobic
    • Suited to strength and speed activity
  • Slow Twitch Fibers
    • Stain dark
    • More aerobic
    • Suited to endurance activity



Sample Calculation

Question: Who’s stronger?

A: 250 pound person who can lift 200 pounds

  • B: 150 pound person who can lift 175 pounds
  • Answer: B
  • A: relative strength = 200/250 = .80
  • B: relative strength = 175/150 = 1.17
  • Person B has more relative strength because he/she can lift more weight per pound of body weight than person A.
  • When strength is relative to body weight or to Lean Body Mass females and males have nearly comparable strength.
  • Therefore, the main reason that males are stronger than females is the amount of muscle mass.



Relative Strength

The amount of weight lifted relative to the person’s body weight measured as a ratio:

Relative Strength = weight lifted (lb.)

body weight (lb.)


Structural Damage in Muscle Fibers

  • The vertical lines are the “z – lines” that define the boundaries of the muscle sarcomere
  • Microscopic damage can lead to disruption of the z-lines and contribute to soreness


Physiology of Muscular Contractions

  • Origin / Insertion
  • A muscle produces movement due to the fact that it crosses a joint.



Sliding Filament Theory

  • Actin/Myosino Protein filaments within a muscle fiber that slide across each other to physiologically shorten the fiber.


Muscles Work in Pairs

While one muscle contracts and shortens the opposing muscle group relaxes and lengthens



Muscle Fibers are Grouped into Motor Units

  • A motor unit refers to a motor nerve and the number of muscle fibers that it innervates


Regulation of Muscle Force (Tetany)

  • When recruited at a high frequency, motor units produce a constant level of force as the individual forces sum together.



The “All or None” Law of Muscular Contractions

  • When a motor unit is stimulated, it “fires” at 100% of its optimal potential, or it does not fire at all.
  • Light loads use few fibers (but at 100%)
  • Heavy loads use many fibers (also at 100%)


Setting Goals

  • Specific
  • Challenging
  • Attainable

Goals should be set at the beginning of the program Goals should be specific, challenging and attainable

They must be specific so you can measure it and know when you reach it. They must be challenging to give you something to strive for but they must be attainable. Setting goals too high is the biggest problem for most people.

Examples of specific goals:

    1. Increase strength in bench press by 20 pounds in 3 months
    2. Decrease percent body fat by 2% in 4 months


Type of Program

  • Muscular strength
  • Muscular endurance
  • General muscular fitness
  • The type of program should relate to the goals that were established.If your goal is to increase strength or size you should use a muscular strength format (heavy weight / low repetition).If your goal is to increase endurance you should use a muscular endurance format (low weight/high repetition)If your goal is to improve general muscular fitness then an intermediate type of program should be used.


Muscle Groups

  • Sport specific training
  • Overall muscle balance

Most resistance training programs should include exercises for all major muscle groups.

The muscle groups and exercises need to be selected.

Some people may want to focus on certain body area to improve performance in a certain sport.

Otherwise, most people would be best off with a program that works each of the major muscle groups.


Order of Exercise

  • Large muscle groups first
  • Small muscle groups first (pre-exhaust)The order of exercises must be specified. There are many different ways a program can be organized. The general recommendation is to do large muscle groups first followed by the small muscle groups. A different system known as the “pre-exhaust” system is based on doing small muscle groups first. The rationale is to tire out accessory muscle groups so they cannot help out during some of the major lifts.


Format for Sets

  • Single sets
  • Multiple sets
    • heavy to light (Oxford system)
    • light to heavy (DeLorme system)
  • Circuit Training

Sets can also be organized in different ways.Good levels of fitness can be attained with only one set for each exercise but gains are generally greater if multiple sets are performed. Beyond three sets the advantage of multiple sets becomes less significant.Some people prefer to work with heavy weights first and then reduce the weight for the next one.Other people prefer to start with a light set first and then increase the weight as they feel warmed up.


Types of Contractions

Concentric vs. Eccentric

Diagram shows that both phases of the lift can promote strength gains.By lifting in a slow and controlled manner you can increase the overload on the muscle and make quicker gains.


Review Questions:

Check Your Understanding

    1. What are some of the benefits of muscular fitness?
      1. High tolerance.
      2. Reducing risks of injury.
      3. Ability to walk faster.
      4. Ability to eat whatever you want.
    2. What is important in resistance training?
      1. Start slowly.
      2. Train every day.
      3. Start with heavy weights.
      4. Train only on the weekend.




Fitness Training, Principles and Methods for The Ultimate VPO



Principles of Training


Progressive Overload

Periodization (Overload Application)

Sample Running Program





Diminishing returns


Detraining and Retraining

Maintenance, Tapering and Peaking

Designing a Training Session

Training Methods



  • Training improves the physiological capacity of athletes to bring out the best performance possible.
  • The demands of the sport can be identified by undertaking an activity analysis
  • A training program needs to meet the demands of the game.
  • Methods of training vary and a program should be well designed.
  • Using a variety of training methods is possible, but must be specific to the sport chosen.
  • Training programs need to follow key training principles.


Principles of Training

Main training principles:

  • Specificity
  • Progressive Overload
  • Frequency
  • Intensity
  • Duration
  • Adaptation
  • Additional Principles:
  • Individuality
  • Diminishing Returns
  • Variety
  • Detraining (Reversibility)
  • Maintenance
  • Retraining



Replicating characteristics of physical activity in the training.An athlete should train the specific; energy systems, fitness components, muscle groups and skills required.The specific type of training and its effect is specific to the individual athlete. Athletes differ in; physiques, muscle fibre composition, VO2 max etc.‘Soreness’ in athletes after games is an indication of a lack of specificity in training.This provides good feedback for coaches.Training which replicates the competitive event is very useful. Using a variety of training methods is complimentary to athletes’ preparation prior to an event.

Case Study – Australian Rules Football Training

  • Team games such as Australian Rules requires specific drills and fitness activities to prepare the players for the game.
    • Training usually consists of continuous training with other methods (Fartlek and Interval) being used.
    • Skill drills replicate game day fitness requirements.
    • Pre-season is used to raise the base level fitness of players, whilst during the season the fitness needs only to be maintained.


Progressive Overload

Progressive overload causes physical stress on the body. The body adapts to the training which leads to improved performances.

Workloads must be gradually adjusted upwards to increase stress on the body.Increase only one factor – make it gradual.

    • Eg. Resistance training – alter: amount of resistance, recovery time, frequency of sessions, number of sets, range of motion, intensity level, etc.
    • Eg. Running – increase: resistance via modified parachutes.
Note: ‘No Pain, No Gain’ – This is a misconception. Pain should not be experienced during training.
Overloading when not prepared can cause injury.



(Overload Application)

  • A training year consists of; pre-season, in-season and off-season. Each phase can be broken down into sub phases.
  • Sub phases can be broken down further into macro cycles and shorter phases of training called micro cycles.
  • Timing when to overload, allowing for recovery time, is essential.
  • When the body is adapting, the new overload level should be put in place.



Sample Running Program




  • Number of training sessions per week to ensure improvements in the desired fitness components and energy systems. Need to allow recovery/rest time.
  • The greater the frequency, the greater the results. However, rest periods are required.
  • The fitness level of the individual and the nature of the activity determine frequency.
  • Eg. A Triathlon requires training twice a day to train in each of the disciplines.
  • How often should we train?
    • Elite – 5-7 times per week
    • Club – 3 sessions per week

Aerobic v. Anaerobic Training:

  • Aerobic Training: 5-7 times a week at 75-85% max H.R.
  • Anaerobic Training: 3-4 times a week at 85-100% max H.R.



  • Exertion level at which training is being performed (quality of training).
  • Commonly measured as % of max. heart rate (220- age).
  • Can be measured manually or with heart rate monitors (bpm).

Training Zones (% Max HR):

    • ATP-PC 95-100%
    • Lactic Acid 85-95%
    • Aerobic 70-85%
  • Note. Athletes can train above their training zones to get additional benefits.
  • Eg. Distance runners can train at 85% max HR meaning: Increased VO2 max, more tolerant to lactic acid and an enhanced aerobic performance.

Lactate Inflection Point and Training:

  • The LIP (Approx. 75% VO2 Max) varies in athletes and can be raised via specific training methods.



  • Duration can refer to the length of each training session or the length of the training program.
  • Aerobic zone – Minimum of 30 minutes to gain benefits. Can be achieved in smaller amounts.
  • Training programs should be at least 6 weeks long, with 12 weeks being ideal.
  • Anaerobic programs 8-10 weeks.
  • Strength 6 weeks
  • Flexibility gains can be made after only a few sessions.
  • Training effects are often very gradual and people need to be patient to observe physical and physiological benefits.



  • In team games, each player has different physiological demands.
  • Individual programs should be developed in addition to team training sessions.
  • Eg. Hockey – Compare needs of stationary goalkeeper with a midfielder.
  • However, it is important that teams do train together as it builds club cohesion, mateship etc. Coaches can also work on team tactics and strategies.
  • Eg. AFL Training – Each player has an additional individual training program which is based on their playing position/s.
  • Clubs also take into account the players; Training history, injuries, illness etc.


Diminishing Returns

  • Fitness gains are hard once into a program.
  • Unfit people have greater gains at the start of the program but then have little gains later in the program.
  • Fitness gains ‘diminish’ once the athlete gets close to their maximal level of fitness.
  • Genetic potential will determine if the unfit athlete will eventually pass the initially fit athlete.
  • Overload can be used when fitness levels plateau.



  • Mix training sessions up to avoid boredom from repetition.
  • A variety of training methods should be used.
  • Try minor or major games, but keep skills/energy systems specific.
    Eg. Cricketers playing a game of baseball or golf.


Note: The principle of specificity should be maintained
  • In team games, the coach should introduce new drills or activities regularly.
  • The coach can also use different club leaders to lead the training session.



Detraining and Retraining

  • Also called ‘reversibility’. Loss of fitness is very quick than the initial gaining of fitness.
  • The body returns to its untrained state unless fitness is maintained.
  • Most fitness is lost after 4-8 weeks of detraining. Generally, the longer the training program, the more gradual the loss occurring.
  • Physiological changes include: increase in HR, decrease in mitochondrial enzymes and decrease in blood volume.
  • Aerobic loss is quicker (2-4 weeks) than anaerobic.
  • Eg. A distance runner and a sprinter both have a month break from training. The distance runner would be worse off than the sprinter.
  • Retraining – All training benefits must be regained by a new training program after a long period of de-training.
  • After injury, the athlete needs a comparable period of time to regain fitness


Maintenance, Tapering and Peaking


  • Frequency can decrease once at the desired level of fitness. But intensity must remain the same.A maintenance program should be used off-season to avoid the effects of detraining.


  • Decrease in training levels in the weeks leading up to the major event. Allows for more recovery time and extra energy storage.


  • Refers to the planning of training so that an athlete reaches their optimum readiness at a particular determined time.


Designing a Training Session

A training session should include;

  • Warm Up – An active warm up which raises muscle temperature and causes sweating.
  • Stretching – Stretch major muscle groups used in the physical activity. Prevents injury.
  • Skill Development – Basic skills worked on and some tactics can be incorporated.
  • Main Conditioning Session – Main training session which works on the major fitness components.
  • Recovery/cool down – Intensity needs to taper off. Reduces stiffness after training sessions. Further flexibility work can also be done.


Training Methods

  • Training Methods:
  • Interval Training
  • Continuous Training
  • Fartlek Training
  • Circuit Training
  • Plyometric Training
  • Flexibility Training
  • Resistance Training
  • Other Methods:
  • Speed Training
  • Pilates
  • Swiss Ball
  • Skill Training


Interval Training

  • Intervals of work followed by rest (ATP/PC replenishment). Rest time can be active.
  • Recovery time determines energy system used.

Variables in interval training:

  • Distance/duration, intensity, duration of rest, activity during rest, number of sets, frequency of training.
  • By varying any of the variables we can progressively overload the athlete.

Energy System training

  • Benefits:
  • Highly structured, specific to game, can measure progress, all energy systems can be trained, minimal equipment required.
  • Lactate tolerance exercises occur at high intensities and usually involve intermediate interval training. At these high intensities, athletes/muscles produce large concentrations of lactate and the body adapts to this by improving its clearance and alkaloid buffering capacity.


Continuous Training

  • Long, slow distance (LSD) training.
  • No rest or break period for at least 20 minutes.
  • Works aerobic energy system.
  • Time should meet demands of game length.

Examples; Jogging, cycling, rowing, walking.

  • Max Intensity – 80-85% max H.R
  • Min Intensity – 65-70% max H.R
  • Time – at least 20 minutes


  • Less demanding than anaerobic training.
  • Provides health benefits.
  • Low risk of injury.

Physiological benefits:

  • Lowered resting H.R
  • Increased stroke volume
  • Thicker heart muscle
  • Increase muscle enzymes
  • Reach steady state quicker
  • Slower lactate accumulation
  • Faster recovery
  • F = Frequency (At least 3 to 4 sessions per week)
  • I = Intensity (In aerobic zone)
  • T = Time (Minimum of 20 minutes)
  • T = Type (Whole body activities that use large major muscle groups)


Training and LT/LIP

  • VO2 max is just one’s ability to take up, transport and utilise maximal amounts of oxygen at maximal aerobic exercise.
  • To increase one’s VO2 max, exercise has to be performed at intensities at or above lactate threshold (LT/LIP).
  • Intensities somewhat higher than LT are usually used and believed by most (70% of literature) to be the best for raising VO2 max, LT intensity has been shown to be just as effective at raising VO2 max in some athletes (30% of literature).


Fartlek Training

  • Variation of continuous training.
  • It involves short bursts of intense work during a continuous activity.
  • Fartlek is Swedish for ‘Speed Play’.
  • Works both aerobic and anaerobic systems.
  • Session can be either structured or unstructured.
  • Can be done in small areas and is suitable for all fitness levels.
  • Intensity – sub-maximal which changes.
  • Overload – Increase frequency, duration, distance of intense bursts.
  • Covering same distance in less time.


  • Energy systems can be trained.
  • Adds variety to a continuous training program.


Circuit Training

  • Uses stations (6-15) that focus on specific components of fitness.A complete circuit should take between 5 and 20 minutes with 15-30 seconds rest between each station.

Coaches can design a circuit manipulating the following variables:

  • Fitness components used
  • Type and number of exercises
  • Number of reps
  • Number of circuits to be completed
  • The length of recovery

Specificity– Exercises can be made specific to the game.

Time– A lap should take 20 minutes with 15-20 break.

Overload – Number of reps, time, laps, recovery time, and resistance.


  • Develops a range of fitness components.
  • Maintains interest – can be varied.
  • Can be used to work on weaknesses.
  • Progress can be measured.
  • Examples: Step-ups, sit-ups, press-ups, squat jumps, shuttle runs, pull ups.


Circuit Training Methods

  • Three main types of circuits;

Fixed load

  • 50 seconds per exercise
  • 3 circuits in 20 minutes
  • Loading is increased each set

Fixed time

  • Max reps in time given

Individual load

  • Max reps in 1 minute.
  • Athlete works at 60%, 70% or 75% rep max.

Or, score is halved and attempted in 2/3 of the time taken to do three complete circuits.


Plyometric Training

  • New name for skipping, bounding and jumping – developed in Eastern Europe and Russia.
  • Develops muscular power from a stretch reflex.
  • Trains eccentric aspect of muscular contraction. Speed is vital.
  • Example: Leaping, bounding, hopping, and rebounding.
Note – Height should not exceed 25cm (Low impact), 35cm high impact.
  • Overload – Altering sets or reps.
  • Low Impact: Reps – x10 Sets- x 1-5 Recovery – 3 min
  • High Impact: Reps – x10-25 Sets – 1-5 Recovery- 10min


  • Trains neuromuscular system.
  • Develops power.
  • Replicates game movements.
  • Minimal equipment required.


  • Athlete needs sound strength and endurance
  • Use less stressful drills for beginners
  • Not recommended for children under 15 years old
  • Train on shock absorbing surfaces
  • Frequency – 2 (off-season) and 1 (in-season)
  • Recovery time – 48 hours


Flexibility Training

  • Ability of specific joints to move through the range of motion required.


  1. Passive (Static) – Holding stretch for 15-30 sec
  2. Slow Active Stretching (SAS) – Stretch, relax then re-stretch. Used in aerobics.
  3. Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation (PNF) – Usually partner assisted stretch. Full lengthening of muscle which contracts isometrically.
  4. Ballistic* – Moving through range of motion using momentum.

*Not recommended unless well warmed up.

  • Frequency – 3-4 sessions a week Should be included in addition to any training program. Flexibility is required in all sports.

Weights (Resistance) Training

Improves muscular strength, power and endurance.


  • Rep – Single effort
  • Rep Max (RM) – max number of reps in a row
  • Set – Number reps in a sequence
  • Resistance – Amount of weight


  • Non-specific groups can be targeted
  • Variety of exercises used
  • Strength, power and endurance can be targeted
  • Record progress on performance chart.


Resistance Types

Free weights (isotonic)

  • Traditional form
  • Uses dumbbells and barbells
  • Dynamic movement
  • Works concentric and eccentric phases.

Fixed resistance (isometric)

  • Holding a fixed position while the muscle contracts against resistance
  • Tension increases but the muscle stays the same length.
  • Increases strength in the static position – minimal use in dynamic sports.
  • Examples: Pushing against a wall, handstands, crucifix position on the roman rings.


  • This is known as ‘accommodating’ resistance.
  • Machines can adjust the load as the body part moves through the range of motion.
  • Limited benefits to the speed in which the machine will operate.
  • Examples: Cybex, Kincom, Biodex and Hydragym.


Speed Training

  • Speed training draws on other training methods.It requires rehearsal of the neural pathways responsible for speed. Speed is dependent on stride frequency and stride length.

Stride Frequency

  • Speed strength exercise
  • Plyometric
  • Downhill running
  • Windy day running
  • Resistance techniques (Parachute)

Stride Length

  • Developing strength, power, endurance and technique analysis.


Pilates and Swiss Ball


    • Gentle method of developing core body strength.
    • Strengthens the deep postural muscles.
    • Classes improve breathing and posture.
    • Integrates physical & mental conditioning, relaxation and breathing techniques.
    • Relieves stress, fatigue, physical discomforts and increases self-confidence.

Swiss Ball

Like Pilates, the Swiss ball develops the deep postural muscles.The exerciser uses the ball for:

  • Static movements
  • Dynamic movements
  • Postural movements can be used in gyms, home (Eg. Fitball) or the workplace.


Motor Skill Development

  • Motor skills can be learned and developed through training.We obtain some skills genetically, however training will enhance these abilities further.

Stages of Learning:

  • Cognitive – Beginner
  • Associative – Learning
  • Autonomous – Expert.

Skill level will depend on:

  • Age, gender, feedback given, recognition of faults, being able to correct faults, perceived ability, level of practice, motivation, physical maturation, fitness capacity, memory.


Review Questions:

Check Your Understanding

    1. What are some of the main principles of training?
      1. Frequency, duration, intensity.
      2. Speed, intensity, training.
      3. Soreness, training, athletics.
    2. How often should a beginner train?
      1. 1 time a week.
      2. 2 times a week.
      3. 3 times a week.
      4. Every day.




Stress Management and Mental Preparedness in Critical Situations


Take the Stress Test

Become Aware of Your Stressors and Emotional and Physical Reactions

Recognize What You Can Change

Reduce the Intensity of Your Emotional Reactions

Learn to Moderate Your Physical Reaction to Stress

Build Your Physical Reserves

Maintain Your Emotional Reserves

Eliminating Stress from Your Environment

Personal Space

Meditation Techniques

Mental Preparedness – Five Color Theory Introduction








Take the Stress Test

Do any of these apply to you?

Work Load

  1. I always too much work and I am never able to relax.
  2. High pressure periods, deadlines, tests – all at once.
  3. One or two difficult courses take all my time with no time left for anything else.
  4. My efforts often seem for nothing. I seldom get satisfying results.
  5. Seems like I have a lot more work than others.
  6. I have to work harder than others to get the same results.
  7. My job takes up too much time but I can’t afford to cut back.
  8. My stress is complicated by commitments I can’t get out of.

If you said yes to many of the above stressors……
you might consider one of the following:

    • Consult with a counselor about time management and/or priority setting
    • Seek out a tutor or other study skills help
    • Talk to the career center about work style


  1. Tension with family, friends or romantic partner.
  2. Incompatibility with roommate’s habits, schedule, lifestyle.
  3. Change in relationship, love lost/gained new romantic partner
  4. Death of a loved one.
  5. Parents’ divorce, separation or conflicts. Adjustment to parent’s new partner.
  6. Interpersonal conflict, trouble expressing needs or standing up for rights.
  7. Reluctant to ask for help.
  8. Trouble saying no.

If you said yes to many of the above stressors……you might consider one of the following:

    • Talk to a friend, RA or counselor about the problem
    • Attend assertiveness training and/or conflict resolution program
    • Take an interpersonal communication class











  1. Worry about what people think?
  2. More time spent thinking about what can go wrong than what can go right.
  3. More time spent thinking about what DID go wrong than where you can go from here.
  4. No time to think, always having to do.
  5. Motivation problems, difficulty getting started.
  6. Tendency to get too worked up when under pressure or in a crisis.
  7. Tendency to get down, dwell on how bad things are.
  8. Often feel guilty.

If you said yes to many of the above stressors…

…you are experiencing a lot of internally generated stress.

    • Information or counseling on self-talk, irrational beliefs and reinterpretation might be a good place to start.












  1. Insufficient sleep.
  2. Frequent colds, sickness.
  3. Negative effects from caffeine, nicotine, alcohol, etc.
  4. Uncomfortable chair, poor posture, excessive time hunched over book or computer.
  5. Eye Strain (wrong glasses, poor lighting, computer screen overload).
  6. Inadequate nutrition, missed meals, reliance on junk food.
  7. Lack of exercise.
  8. Aversive environment.

If you said yes to many body stressors

…then try the following:

      • Exercise regularly
      • Choose healthy foods
      • Change your environment (lighting, space, etc.)
      • Reduce or eliminate caffeine, nicotine and alcohol intake
      • Get enough sleep




So…What Can You Do To Alleviate Excessive Stress?

  • Become Aware of Your Stressors and Emotional and Physical Reactions
      • Notice when you are stressed, don’t ignore it.
      • Find out what stresses you out and what they might be telling you.
      • Learn how it affects your body (sweats, stomach ache, etc.)
  • Recognize what you can change
      • Can you change your stressors by avoiding or eliminating them?
      • Can you reduce their intensity (manage them over time instead of immediately)?
      • Can you shorten your exposure to stress (take a break, leave)?
      • Can you devote the time necessary to making a change?
  • Reduce the intensity of your emotional reactions
      • Are you expecting to please everyone?
      • Are you overreacting and viewing things as absolutely critical and urgent?
        • Work at adopting moderate views, see stress as something you can cope with, not something that overpowers you
        • Do not labor on the negative and/or the “what ifs”
  • Learn to moderate your physical reactions to stress
      • Slow, deep breathing will bring your heart rate and respiration back to normal.
      • Relaxation techniques can reduce muscle tension.
      • Medications, when prescribed by a physician can help in the short term.7
  • Build your physical reserves
      • Exercise for cardiovascular fitness 3 – 4 times a week.
      • Eat well-balanced, nutritious meals.
      • Maintain your ideal weight.
      • Avoid nicotine, excessive caffeine and other stimulants
      • Mix leisure with work. Take breaks and get away.
      • Get enough sleep. Be consistent with your sleep schedule.
  • Maintain your emotional reserves
      • Develop mutually supportive friendships/relationships.
      • Pursue realistic goals which are meaningful to you, rather than goals other have for you that you do not share.
      • Expect some frustrations, failures and sorrows.
      • Always be kind and gentle with yourself – be a friend to yourself.
  • Eliminating Stress From Your Environment
      • A poorly organized living space can be a major source of stress.
      • If your environment is well organized and pleasant, then it can help to reduce stress and increase productivity.
      • Some people under stress need a calm environment, while others may enjoy the raised levels of arousal associated with the ‘buzz’ of a busy space.
  • Air Quality
    • To improve air quality:
      • Ban smoking
      • Open windows
      • Use an ionizer
      • Have plants in the room.
  • Lighting
      • Bad lighting can cause eye strain and increase fatigue, as can light that is too bright, or light that shines directly into your eyes. Fluorescent lighting can also be tiring. What you may not appreciate is that the quality of light may also be important.
      • Try experimenting with working by a window or using full spectrum bulbs in your desk lamp. You will probably find that this improves the quality of your working environment.
  • Decoration and Tidiness
      • A chaotic and cluttered living or work space adds to stress.
      • Don’t be dogmatic, but keep the area you are working in free of clutter.
      • Have calming and happy decorations.
  • Noise
    • Large amounts of background noise during the day can cause irritability, tension and headaches in addition to loss of concentration.
  •  Solutions:
      • Use quiet rooms when concentration is needed.
      • Use earplugs.
      • Try a pleasantly assertive approach. Ask that music is turned down or that the person use headphones.
  • Personal Space
    • It is important for people to feel that they have sufficient personal space at work and at home.
      • Where no personal space is available, then you can establish some feeling of ownership by bringing personal objects such as small plants or photographs of loved-ones.
      • Block off a space using furniture, sheet or divider when you need some space.


Meditation Techniques

  • The essence of meditation is to quiet your thoughts by focusing completely on just one thing.
  • Unlike hypnosis, which is more of a passive experience, meditation is an active process which seeks to exclude outside thoughts by concentrating all mental faculties on the subject of meditation.
  • Keep your body relaxed. It should be in a position that you can comfortably sustain for a period of time (20 – 30 minutes is ideal).


  • Focus your attention on your breathing.
  • Concentrate on breaths in and out. Count your breaths using the numbers 0 to 9.
  • Visualize images of the numbers changing with each breath.
  • Alternatively, visualize health and relaxation flowing into your body when you inhale, and stress or pain flowing out when you exhale.

Focusing on an object

  • Completely focus attention on examination of an object.
  • Look at it in immense detail for the entire meditation. Examine the shape, color differences, texture, temperature and movement of the object.
  • Objects often used are flowers, or flowing designs. However, you can use other objects equally effectively (e.g. alarm clocks, desk lamps, or even coffee mugs!)

Focus on a sound

  • Some people like to focus on sounds. The classic example is the Sanskrit word ‘Om’, meaning ‘perfection’.

Guided Imagination

  • Create a mental image of a pleasant and relaxing place in your mind.
  • Involve all your senses in the imagery: see the place, hear the sounds, smell the aromas, feel the temperature and the movement of the wind.
  • Enjoy the location in your mind.





Review Questions:

Check Your Understanding

      1. What can help you alleviate stress?
        1. Reduce the intensity of emotional reactions.
        2. Slow deep breathing.
        3. Exercise.
        4. All of the above.
      2. What of the following is NOT a meditation technique?
        1. Breathing exercises.
        2. Eating junk food.
        3. Focusing on an object or sound.
        4. Guided imagination.

Mental Preparedness

The Five Color Theory


  • Mental preparedness” is defined as the ability of an athlete or combatant to wield all of his physical ability by reading and choosing.
  • What makes one marksman different from another? Although all marksmen know how to hit the center of a target, only a few champions stand out.
  • The ability to wield knowledge and ability at the moment of truth is what makes the difference:
      • Adults vs. children
      • Veteran shooters (who train frequently) vs. champions (who also win).
  • To better understand the term “mental preparedness”, let us go back to the “street” and the “battle field” – the origins of all sports.
  • The attempt to define the mental preparedness of warriors, lawmen and athletes has led to the development of the five-color theory:




  • No mental preparedness
      • No knowledge
      • No awareness
  • Usually naïve people without any security awareness of any kind There is no problem remaining in this condition indefinitely.



Low preparedness

Familiar to all those who know what security is about:

  • Previously engaged in the field of security or protection
  • Served in the military
  • Served as a Civil Guard
  • Participated in military cadet lessons

Example 1:

Someone runs across the road

    • A person in “condition white” will not react at all.
    • A person in “condition yellow” however, will turn his head to see what is going on.


Example 2:

Carrying a handgun

    • The bearer is in “condition yellow”, aware of the situation
    • Having a firearm defines him as being of a higher preparedness level than that of “condition white”
    • One may remain in condition yellow indefinitely.



  • High preparedness
  • Adrenaline is transferred to the blood vessels
  • Blood pressure increases
  • Heart rate increases
  • Tension in major muscles.

Example 1:

A person runs across the street shouting something, someone chases him also shouting something

  • A person in “condition yellow”, who sees all this as a bystander, changes his condition to “orange” – maybe he will have to react?
  • Maybe he will have to run, defend himself and even shoot?
  • Maybe he will need to apply everything he has learned and practiced up to now.
  • Adrenalin hits the bloodstream.
  • Pulse increases, leading to increased blood pressure.
  • Brain starts contemplating.
  • Brain reaches a conclusion.

Now the individual has to make a quick decision, with a few options available:

  • A gang of children are messing around, chasing a ball:
  • → One resumes the “all clear state” and lapses back into ‘condition yellow’, or…
  • A terrorist is still endangering the public:

→ The decision is inevitable, the hand starts moving towards the gun, the eyes select the target, and…

  • Condition orange is a temporary stage – restricted to a few hours.
  • Improved physical fitness (emphasis on issues that distinguish one’s unique role) allows for an increase in the time range in which one may remain in “CONDITION ORANGE”.

An unskilled individual will lapse back into “CONDITION YELLOW”


The deliberation has ended and the decision has been made:

  • The gun is out and a round chambered
  • The eyes search to aim
  • Another adrenalin dose to the blood
  • The heart rate increases by another notch
  • The blood pressure increases again
  • Systems non-essential to the body’s immediate functioning, such as the stomach, liver, kidneys and smooth muscles stop working.
  • All the blood and oxygen in the body is diverted to life support systems.
  • Major muscles such as the heart, legs, back, neck, diaphragm (for the lungs) work at higher rate…
  • The eye observes the target and coordinates with the hand
  • The pistol rises up to take the shot
  • The body undergoes another change… entering “CONDITION BLACK”…
Condition “RED” may last 10 or 20 minutes, depending on physical fitness.Reverting to “CONDITION ORANGE” happens involuntarily and unconsciously…for the body to function at its best!!



Another burst of adrenalin into the bloodstream pushes the life support systems operating in the body into a frenzy:

  • The brain runs at least 6 times faster
  • Peripheral vision decreases, and sight becomes eagle-like:
  • Sharp and focused in the center
  • Very blurred in the edges

This phenomenon is sometimes referred to as the “Tunnel Effect”:

  • You feel like everything is happening in extremely slow motion
  • The brain receives and analyzes facts so quickly that muscles are unable to respond
  • The brain knows that the body has to move, yet the muscles are unable to work at such speed

This is like a road accident in which the driver hits the brakes and nothing happens…

The vehicle continues to drive in slow motion crashing into the vehicle in front. There is time to:

  • Get out of the vehicle
  • Look and go back into the vehicle
  • Only then do you hit the vehicle in front.

You lapse back into condition “RED” and straight away back into “ORANGE”:

  • NOW you may feel a pulse again
  • NOW your hearing slowly returns
  • NOW your vision stabilizes


The tunnel effect is not voluntary!

It lasts some 3 to 8 seconds before going back to conditions “RED” and “ORANGE”



The transition from one color into another is gradual. You cannot “skip” a color!

  • Yellow to orange
  • Orange to red


Firing is always from condition black only.

We choose the time for switching from yellow to orange… and from orange to red. Transition to black is always involuntary!!!

  • We can control the descent only when we initiate it:
    • a change of position
    • a short rest
    • etc.
  • We cannot remain in “condition red” indefinitely. The body cannot withstand this: it lowers its alertness without our being aware of it.
  • After staying in “condition red” for a prolonged period, the body lowers its alertness level to “orange” unnoticed.
  • When we want to react, we cannot!! The body must change its condition to “red” again, and only from there to “black”.
  • This takes a considerable amount of time.

Particularly when time is not available!

  • The various conditions and the transition between yellow, orange and red can be practiced.
  • The transition from red to black is and remains involuntary!!!
  • The ability to transfer between colors requires good, stable physical fitness, cardiopulmonary stamina and surge strength.
Remember:“Nobody’s wiser than all of us together”



Review Questions:

Check Your Understanding

  1. What are the colors of mental preparedness?
    1. Blue, green, yellow, white, black.
    2. Red, blue, green, orange, purple.
    3. Purple, black, white, orange, yellow.
    4. White, yellow, orange, red, black.
  2. How does one transition between conditions?
    1. Gradually.
    2. Suddenly.
    3. Calmly.
    4. By skipping over yellow.





The VPO and The Dangers of Assertiveness


Definition of Assertiveness

a. Test your Assertiveness

What is Assertiveness? What it is not?



Assertiveness vs. Authority

What Would You Say?

What Did You Say?

A Passive Person

An Aggressive Person

An Assertive Person

Several Tips

Six Personality Types

Nine Types of Assertive Response

Are you Assertive in The Workplace?

Developing into Your Full Assertive Potential

What to do When Confronted with a Problem?

Communication: Verbal, Non-Verbal and Written

Assertiveness is Also About:

Fears that Block Assertive Behavior

Tips on Assertiveness

Action Plan


Definition of Assertiveness

Assertiveness is an honest, direct, and appropriate expression of one’s feelings, thoughts, and beliefs.


Test Your Assertiveness

  • Can you express negative feelings about other people and their behaviors without using abusive language?
  • Are you able to exercise and express your strengths?
  • Can you easily recognize and compliment other people’s achievements?
  • Do you have the confidence to ask for what is rightfully yours?
  • Can you accept criticism without being defensive?
  • Do you feel comfortable accepting compliments?
  • Are you able to stand up for your rights?
  • Are you able to refuse unreasonable requests from friends, family, or co- workers?
  • Can you comfortably start and carry on a conversation with others?
  • Do you ask for assistance when you need it?
Remember:“Nobody’s wiser than all of us together”


Why is Assertiveness Important?

  • Effective communication brings about the achievement of individual and/or shared goals.
  • Assertiveness increases your ability to reach these goals while maintaining your rights and dignity.


The Myths about Assertiveness

  • Other people’s feelings and rights are more important than yours.
  • You will offend other people by being assertive.
  • You are not important enough to express your feelings and rights.

Assertive Rights

  • You have the right to be assertive.
  • You have the right to request that others change their behavior if they are infringing on your rights.
  • You have the right to use your own time to answer questions.
  • You have the right to express your needs even if they are “illogical”.

Be aware that there are responsibilities attached to all these rights!



  • You do not live in isolation.
  • Your actions impact everyone.
  • You are in control of your behavior.
  • Your response to a situation must be guided by ascertaining your rights and responsibilities and following through.


What’s Keeping You From Being Assertive?

  • Fear of change.
  • Refusal to admit submissiveness.
  • Fear of ruining relationships if you speak your mind.
  • Lack of confidence in your ability.


Have You Ever Felt…?

… guilty about saying “no”?

… that others regard you as a pushover?

… that it’s better to be well liked than well respected?

… that outbursts of anger are appropriate?

… that intimidation is the only way you can get what you want?


Sound Familiar?

If any of these things sound like you, it means you are probably exhibiting non- assertive behavior.

Realize that you are not alone. Non-assertive behavior is very common in the workplace.


A Caution

While assertiveness is a key factor in enhancing quality of work life, group dynamics, and interpersonal climate, it is not always appropriate.

Q: How can you tell?

A: Tailor your response to the situation

Wise Words

Ask yourself:

  1. How important is being assertive in this particular situation?
  2. What will you think of yourself if you are not assertive now?
  3. What are the consequences of assertive behavior?
  4. Do the costs of this behavior outweigh the benefits?



What Is Assertiveness?

  • Respect for yourself and others.
  • Honestly expressing your thoughts, feelings, and beliefs.
  • Effectively influencing, listening, and negotiating with others.

What Assertiveness Is Not

  • It is important to remember that assertiveness is not aggressiveness or selfishness.
  • Being assertive does not involve humiliating or abusing other people and their rights.
  • Being assertive does not mean violating the rights of others or gaining at the expense of someone else’s loss.

Aggressiveness is…

  • Inappropriately expressing your thoughts, feelings, and beliefs in a way that violates other people’s rights.
  • Achieving your goal by not allowing others the freedom to choose.
  • Completely disrespecting others whether it is in an active or passive method.


Are You Aggressive?

  • Do you become abusive, whether it is verbal or physical, when criticizing others?
  • Do you purposely make others feel like they are incompetent or unimportant?
  • Do you make unreasonable demands of other people?
  • Do you brag or exaggerate your achievements?
  • Do you ignore the rights and feelings of other people?
  • Do you aim to get your way at all costs?
  • Do you often dominate conversations with others?
Remember:“Nobody’s wiser than all of us together”


Un assertiveness is…

  • Acting in an indirect or passive manner.
  • Permitting others to take advantage of you by violating your rights.
  • Thinking that you and your needs are inferior to others and their needs.


Are You Unassertive?

  • Do you feel guilty standing up for your rights or expressing your feelings?
  • Are you unable to recognize and acknowledge your strengths?
  • Are you uncomfortable with starting or carrying on a conversation?
  • Do you rarely stand up for yourself?
  • Do you have trouble saying “no” to people?
  • Are you unable to ask other people to perform reasonable requests for you?
  • Do you feel that you let other people take advantage of you?


Assertiveness vs. Authority

Should you “pull rank”?

  • If you use effective communication skills, assertiveness and self-confidence, most situations may be resolved.
  • However, using your authority is legitimate as a secondary option.


More Words to the Wise

  • Don’t use these cautions as an excuse to perpetuate unassertive behavior.
  • More often than not, assertiveness is appropriate to the situation and you should not hesitate in applying it.


What Would You Say

  • Joan is at a meeting where the topic is the profitability of the project she’s been working on for three months straight. She has not said a word in the past hour. Suddenly she jumps up and accuses the boss of deliberately canceling the project based on personal dislike.
  • The copier has been broken for two days. Sam asked the secretary to call in for repairs several times with no effect. He says nothing and ends up calling it in himself. After all, he thinks, she is probably too busy typing up that memo he gave her this morning.
  • Bob is in line at the deli counter waiting to be served. His number is about to be called next. Suddenly, a woman steps in front of him and places her order. Bob vociferously complains about the deli worker and the woman, exclaims he will never shop there again, tosses his ticket, and stalks off.
  • Judy’s boss asks her to go on an important business trip, which will carry over, into the weekend of her sister’s wedding. Judy feels she can’t refuse her boss and plans on sending her spouse to the wedding in her place
  • George is next in line to buy tickets in a crowded movie theatre lobby. Just as his turn comes up, a man cuts in front of him and requests tickets. George meekly steps back to allow the man room and hopes he gets waited on next.



What Did You Say?

  • Q: Do you think that these were appropriate and effective ways to handle these situations?
  • A: The answer is probably “no.” Reactions like these usually cause more problems than they solve.


A Passive Person

  • Speak softly and hesitantly.
  • Use fillers like “uh” and “um.”
  • Avoid eye contact.
  • Allow other people in their personal space.


Should I Use Force?


  • Passiveness is clearly not conducive to ascertaining your personal rights, but you don’t need to go to the other extreme to be assertive.
  • You don’t have to be forceful to be assertive.
  • Soft-spoken people can be assertive too!
  • There is no one way to be assertive correctly, but there are things to avoid.


An Aggressive Person

Infringes on others’ rights, using fear and intimidation to get what he or she wants.

Aggressive people often:

  • Raise their voices when they lose control.
  • Shout and use accusatory language like “You should” and “You must.”
  • Stare people down and may invade other people’s personal space physically.

An Assertive Person

Asserts his or her own rights in a positive, open, honest, and self-confident manner.

Assertive people usually:

  • Speak calmly and confidently.
  • Notify other people of their feelings with statements starting with “I think” and “I feel.”
  • Maintain eye contact, have good posture and are poised and in control.


Several Tips

  • Be cognizant of your expression.
  • Do not act hastily or in anger.
  • Remain calm, cool, courteous & collected.
  • Avoid making mountains out of molehills.
Following these simple suggestions will present you as someone who is confident & optimistic — as opposed to someone who is hostile and angry.



Six Personality Types

    • Hamsters
    • Invisible Beings
    • Pit Bulls
    • Dreamers
    • Whiners.
    • Mutes.




Does good work, gets respect, BUT gets nowhere when it comes to career advancement. Where do all their efforts go?

They may be assertive for the organization they work for, but fall short when it comes to standing up for themselves.



Invisible Beings

They do good work BUT nobody knows it.

Their unassertiveness lets others take credit for their achievements and that leaves them out of the limelight.




Their overly aggressive behavior gets in the way of their success at work.

They may be good workers, but the disruption and tension they create makes them disliked and puts them on the defensive.




Daydreaming shows a lack of self-control that keeps them from advancing.

Work that they eventually turn in is acceptable. This lack of focus may indicate low self-esteem.




They constantly complain about exactly what they don’t like, yet expect others to speak up and change the situation.

They do nothing to affect the change themselves, no matter how much taking decisive actions would help remedy their complaints.




They have a problem saying “no” and, for that matter, much of anything at all.

They take everything that’s given, whether they like it or not, and their passivity makes them over-worked and stressed.



Nine Types of Assertive Response

  1. Disagree in both a passive and active manner depending on the situation.
  2. Always ask for answers when you have questions regarding any issues even when it is with a person of authority.
  3. Let other people understand more about you – let them share your thoughts and experiences.
  4. Be reasonable when you are in a discussion with others without letting them dominate the interaction.
  5. Say “no” to any requests you are uncomfortable with or feel are unreasonable.
  6. Always look directly into the eyes of the person you are talking to.
  7. Accept compliments graciously without feeling embarrassed or the need to depreciate yourself.
  8. Be friendly and sincere with the people you would like to know better. Give them a chance to get to know you.
  9. Insist on being treated fairly and justly – never let others take advantage of you.


Are You Assertive in The Workplace?

If so, then you do your job well while maintaining your rights and fulfilling your responsibilities.

Don’t worry if you don’t fit into this category yet … There’s still hope!



Developing to Your Full Assertive Potential

Inside everyone, there’s an assertive person trying to get out.

What’s keeping you back?



Tension at Work


By controlling tension, you will also control the possibilities of outbursts and unnecessary or unproductive anger.



Relaxing Techniques

Tried and true methods are best…

  • Remember to keep on breathing!
  • Inhale, count to 10, exhale, repeat



Heading Tension Off at the Pass

Finding appropriate ways to deal with:

  • Conflicts
  • Grievances


What to Do When Confronted with a Problem?

Get a Grip

Controlling your emotions is the first step to helping solve, rather than magnify, this problem assertively.

Reach for Logic

Examine the situation carefully and make sure you have a handle on all the facts. Look to see if you are in fact contributing to the situation.

Don’t Keep a Lid on It

Procrastination will only make it worse. Pent-up frustrations could lead to unwanted explosions that may be more problematic than the original situation.

Don’t Take It So Hard

Remember to keep perspective when things get sticky, and don’t take things personally. It will only increase your emotional involvement and hamper your ability to resolve the situation.


In Dealing with Conflict

  • Deal with the situation immediately.
  • Listen carefully.
  • Sort out the facts from the emotional content
  • Avoid being defensive.
  • Ask questions.
  • Compliment the individual/group for having the courage to bring this to your attention.
  • Respond calmly and clearly.
  • Offer alternatives.



If You Have a Grievance

  • Deal with the situation immediately.
  • Be prepared to listen.
  • Avoid being emotional.
  • Avoid putting the other person on the defensive.
  • Be open to the truth and accept the facts.
  • Remain calm.
  • Have the courage to be assertive.


Who is Afraid?

The only thing someone should fear is missing opportunities by continuing to worry and feed passive attitudes.



Making the First Move

Overcoming the Fear of Being Assertive:

  • Concentrate
  • Make Eye Contact
  • Be tactful and honest
  • Remember who you’re with and tailor your discussion



Interpersonal Skills at Work

Avoid misunderstanding which can lead to frustration. Being assertive means being open and direct.

  • Are your requests reasonable?
  • Are your requests easy to understand?
  • Are you sure you know what you want from other people?




Keys to More Power!


Increased assertiveness leads to increased powerful verbal communication.

  • The Keys to Communication
  • Verbal
  • Non- verbal
  • Written





Verbal Communication

  • Avoid fillers like “uh” and “um” and diminutives like “little,” “only” and “just.”
  • Don’t use “I’m sorry” if you’re not sincere or if the situation doesn’t call for it.
  • Always keep in mind your tone and volume, and think about how they may be perceived by others.



Non-Verbal Communication

  • Be aware of gestures and body language.
  • Always maintain good posture.
  • Make sure to allow for comfortable personal space between you and the person you’re communicating with.




Written Communication

  • Be concise and clear.
  • Use specific and simple language.
  • Use the active voice when writing, and remember to be inclusive and aware of your audience.




Communication is a Goal

  • Other Aspects of Good Communication:
          • Listening well.
          • Controlling your emotions.
          • Letting people know how you feel.
          • Making assertive statements


Tips on Listening Well

Being an Active Listener:

  • Paraphrase what the speaker has said.
  • Maintain eye contact and verbally encourage the speaker.
  • Ask informative and clarifying questions.




Controlling Your Emotions

  1. Breathe, relax, and remain calm.
  2. Realize demonstrations of anger, shouting, and threats are never appropriate.
  3. Use neutral, non-judgmental statements.
  4. Consider the other party’s viewpoint and emotions.
  5. Don’t make accusatory statements– blame is usually a dead-end road.
  6. Check yourself before you say something you will regret later on.


Four Steps to Saying “No”


  1. Listen to the request – Make sure you understand the request completely before coming to a hasty conclusion. Ask questions if you need any clarification.
  2. Say no immediately – You do not need to justify your decision. If you start doing so, you will be prolonging the conversation unnecessarily.
  3. Give a reason for your refusal – Without giving a reason, you may come off as uncooperative or hostile. A clear and honest reason will be sufficient; you do not need to argue with the other party.
  4. Offer to find an alternative – Let the other party know that you will try to help them but you are unable to perform the entire request.



Use “I” Statements

Three Parts:

    1. Behavior – What it is exactly, that the other person has done or is doing
    2. Feelings – What effect does their behavior have on your feelings
    3. Effect – What is happening because of their behavior

Example: When you play music in the office, I feel angry, because I need quiet inorder to concentrate.



Letting Other People Know How You Feel

While remaining cool and collected, try to explain your point of view.

Use terms like “I feel” and “I think” rather than “It should be” or “It must.”


Making Assertive Statements

Describe your wants, needs and intentions to other people.

Use terms like “I want,” “I need,” and “I plan to.”

More Tips

  • Communicating a request for change to another person is probably one of the hardest tasks for the newly assertive person.
  • Using the following technique may help someone get through those first tough spots when it comes to difficult situations.




Requesting Change from Someone Else

  1. Describe the situation.
  2. Express your feelings on the subject.
  3. Request a behavior change.
  4. State the positive consequences of changed behavior.

Use this template as your guide when dealing with sticky situations.



The Criteria for Requesting Change

The method you use to request change from someone else should include the following six criteria:

  • A good chance that the person you are requesting change from will change.
  • You will not violate the rights of others
  • You will not belittle other people’s self esteem
  • You will not damage your relationship with the person you are requesting change from.
  • You will not lessen the motivation of the other person.
  • You will not be defensive.


Don’t Get Mad…

Anger may seem like a quick fix, but it will get you nowhere fast.

Yelling until you are blue in the face will only come back to haunt you later.

Assertiveness is More Than Courage



Assertiveness is Also About

  • Setting limits.
  • Expressing your feelings




“No” is Not a Dirty Word


  • If something makes you feel uncomfortable or if you feel the request is unreasonable, then it is your prerogative to refuse.


  • You are not saying “no” to the whole person, but only to part of the relationship which makes you feel uncomfortable.
  • “No” does not require an excuse.



Don’t Go Down the Passive or Aggressive Road

Use good communication to transmit your requests and feelings.


First Impressions

Slouching, avoiding eye contact and other self-effacing mannerisms can show a lack of self-confidence.

This kind of self-presentation can perpetuate a cycle of non-assertive behavior.



Keeping Up Appearances

Part of standing up for yourself is standing up straight!

And remember to look them in the eye!



It’s a Two-Way Street

Also, be aware of the physical responses of others.

If people are avoiding your stare or shying away, slow down. You may be coming on too strong.


Taking the First Step

If you don’t like the way you feel when you behave a certain way, know that you have the power to change it!

Remember, the only behavior you can control is your own.

“A journey of a thousand miles must begin with a single step.”


Fears that Block Assertive Behavior

  1. Fear of making mistakes.
  2. Fear of displeasing others.
  3. Fear of disapproval.
  4. Fear of appearing too masculine or too feminine.




Assertiveness = Personal Authority

+ Confidence in Your Skills

+ Sense of Purpose

+ Commitment to Goals



Start Out Small

Master what you can manage comfortably at first, and then move up to greater challenges.
Change is always gradual; it’s not immediate, but it’s not impossible either.



You Can Change Your Habits

  1. Identify what you want to change about yourself.
  2. Set a goal.
  3. Control your fears and anxieties.
  4. Aim for success that is manageable at first.
  5. Keep a record to monitor your progress.
  6. Practice, practice, practice!

Don’t lose sight of your goal, and remember that upkeep is a life-long commitment.

“Natural abilities are like natural plants that need pruning by study…”Francis Bacon




“The Play’s the Thing…”

  • A good way to enforce what you have learned is to role-play.
  • Practice and feedback are essential to discovering strengths and weaknesses, as is having a chance to try out your skills in a supportive forum.



Tips on Assertiveness

Here are some communication skills that will help you convey an assertive attitude:

  • Be aware of your facial expression.
  • Always make eye contact.
  • Pay attention to what others are saying and let them know that you are listening.
  • Use a pleasant but firm voice when communicating.
  • Be aware of your gestures and how you hold and present yourself.
  • Always ask questions when clarification is needed to avoid misunderstanding.
  • Look for ways to solve the problem so all parties are satisfied.


Comfort Zone

  • Comfort level is the degree to which you feel comfortable with what is happening, while taking into the situation, circumstances and the relationship.
  • Whenever the comfort level is exceeded, “Speak Up”.



Time for the Diagnostic

  • How do you fare when it comes to behaving assertively?
  • Knowing where you are personally can help gauge how far you’ve come and how much farther you have to go.




Action Plan

What are you going to act on?

Start with the three easiest items:

Action Steps

  • List specific behaviors.
  • Be as systematic as possible.
  • Rank the behaviors in terms of their complexity or degree of difficulty.
  • Rank the behaviors in terms of chronological order.
  • Begin with the least difficult behavior.
  • Advance to a more difficult behavior.
  • Break difficult behavior down into several smaller behaviors.
  • Attach time limits to each behavior.
  • Repeat specific behavior until mastered.
  • Review all previous behaviors.
  • Advance to next most difficult behavior.
  • Measure and evaluate.
  • Keep records (preferably visual).
  • Reinforce through reward and punishment.
  • Use visual reminders (pictures, charts, etc.).
  • Remember: “A small goal is enough!”.


Review Questions:

Check Your Understanding

  1. How many types of assertive responses are there?
    1. 3.
    2. 6.
    3. 9.
    4. 12.
  2. How many personality types are there?
    1. 2.
    2. 4.
    3. 6.
    4. 8.



Emotional Intelligence in the Field

“Emotional Intelligence Sets Apart Good Leaders from Bad Leaders”


What is intelligence?

One definition


Potent Predictors of Career Success

How Do We View Emotions?

How to Get at Emotion

A Biological Purpose for Emotion

Basic Emotions

Evolutionary Advantage to Emotion

Neurobiology of Rationality

What is Emotional Intelligence?

The Five Components of EQ2

Emotional Self-Awareness

The Value of Taking Time for Self–Awareness

Managing One’s Own Emotions

Out of Control Emotions

Emotional Development

Using Emotions to Maximize Intellectual Processing and Decision Making

Utilizing Mild Emotional Swings to Perform One’s Options More Effectively

Developing empathy

The art of social relationships – managing emotions in others

The subtle and complex abilities which underlie people skills

The danger of the nice personality

The development of EQ3

Gender differences

Emotion related dysfunction

Dysfunction at work

Some business examples

Importance of EQ in organizations

What is training in EQ worth?

Nine strategies for promoting Emotional intelligence

Instruments to measure “EQ”


What is Intelligence?

  • Typically focused on:
    • analytic reasoning
    • verbal skills
    • spatial ability
    • attention
    • memory
    • judgment

Murky concept with definitions by many experts…



One Definition

Individuals differ from one another in their ability to understand complex ideas, to adapt effectively to the environment, to learn from experience, to engage in various forms of reasoning, to overcome obstacles by taking thought… Concepts of intelligence are attempts to clarify and organize this complex set of phenomena.

– Neisser et al, 1996.


  • A weak predictor for:
  • –achievement
  • –job performance success
  • –overall success, wealth, & happiness
  • Accounts for a major component of employment success according to numbers of studies covering career success; maybe as much as 20-25%.



More potent predictors of career success are…

  • The ability to handle frustrations
  • The ability to manage one’s own emotions
  • The ability to manage one’s own social skills




How do we view emotions?

  • Chaotic
  • Haphazard
  • Superfluous
  • Incompatible with reason
  • Disorganized
  • Largely visceral
  • Resulting from the lack of effective adjustment
  • Arouse, sustain, direct activity
  • Part of the total economy of living organisms
  • Not in opposition to intelligence
  • Themselves a higher order of intelligence

Emotional processing may be an essential part of rational decision making


To Get at Emotion, Go Deep…

Amygdala is deep within the most elemental parts of the brain.

The main purpose of the innermost part of the brain is survival.




There is a Biological Purpose for Emotion

  • Signaling function (that we might take action)
  • Promote unique, stereotypical patterns of physiological change
  • Provide a strong impulse to take action


Basic Emotions–presumed to be hard wired and physiologically distinctive

  • Joy
  • Surprise
  • Sadness
  • Anger
  • Disgust
  • Fear

Evolutionary Advantage to Emotion

  • For example: Fight or flight response
  • But can basic emotions overwhelm rational thinking?




Neurobiology of Rationality

  • Damasio’s work shows how neurobiology can help us understand the role of emotion in thinking. We constantly learn more about this important area.
  • Work like his underlies the concepts of emotional intelligence.
  • There are less obvious advantages to emotional experiences.
  • Emotion is emerging as an essential contributor to rational decision making.



What is Emotional Intelligence (EQ)?

Emotional Intelligence is the capacity for recognizing our own feelings and those of others, for motivating ourselves, and for managing emotions well in ourselves and in our relationships.

  • a field in infancy
  • fast-growing
  • aspects harken to research of the 1940’s
  • “Being nice”


The Five Components of EQ

  • Emotional self- awareness
  • Managing one’s one emotions
  • Using emotions to maximize intellectual processing and decision making
  • Developing empathy
  • The art of social relationships (managing emotions in others)



Emotional Self-Awareness

  • The inability to notice our true feelings leaves us at the mercy of others.
  • People with greater certainty about their feelings are better pilots of their lives and have a surer sense about how they feel about personal decisions.
  • Stay open to our emotional experience– can we tolerate the entire bouquet.


The Value of Taking Time for Self-Awareness Requires Abilities


  • to recognize appropriate body cues and emotions
  • to label cues and emotions accurately
  • to stay open to unpleasant, as well as pleasant emotions
  • Includes the capacity for experiencing and recognizing multiple and conflicting emotions
  • Alexithymia; when self-awareness is impoverished.
  • No words for emotion
  • Difficulty in distinguishing between emotions
  • Impoverished capacity for fantasy
  • Over-concern with physical symptoms


Managing One’s Own Emotions

  • EI is like a smoke alarm–we’re not good at influencing whether a particular emotion will arise. EI tells us something is arising.
  • We do have tremendous individual variability in the degree to which we can consciously limit the duration of unpleasant emotions and the degree of influence over the behaviors which may arise.


Out of Control

  • Impair reasoning (even smart people sometimes act stupidly)
  • May increase the likelihood that chronic emotional problems will result, (e.g., clinical depression, chronic anxiety or hostility)


Emotional Development


  • We develop external strategies first
  • Then we develop social strategies
  • Girls do better at developing strategies overall


Using Emotions to Maximize Intellectual Processing and Decision Making

  • As a person matures, emotions begin to shape and improve thinking by directing a person’s attention to important changes,
      • e.g., a child worries about his homework while continually watching TV.
      • A teacher becomes concerned about a lesson that needs to be completed for the next day. The teacher moves on to complete the task before concern takes over enjoyment.


Utilizing Mild Emotional Swings to Perform One’s Options More Effectively


  • A “gut feeling” can be used to effectively guide decisions–a neurological understanding of how unconscious and conscious gut feelings guide decisions, e.g., when prioritizing, emotions help move the decisions.
  • Harness emotions to promote or hinder motivation (Anxiety, hostility, sadness).
  • Emotional swings to increase the accuracy of one’s perspective on future events.
  • Using emotions to maximize intellectual processing and decision making.


Developing Empathy

  • Empathy is the ability to recognize another’s emotional state, which is very similar to what you are experiencing.
  • In research on married couples, empathy appears to include matching the physiological changes of the other person.


Developing Empathy Links


  • Greater emotional stability
  • Greater interpersonal sensitivity
  • Better school performance


The Art of Social Relationships–Managing Emotions in Others

  • To excel at people skills means having and using the competencies to be an effective friend, negotiator, and leader.
  • One should be able to guide an interaction, inspire others, make others comfortable in social situations, and influence and persuade others.


The Subtle and Complex Abilities, Which Underlie People Skills

  • Being attuned to others’ emotions
  • Promoting comfort in others through the proper use of display rules
  • Using own emotional display to establish a sense of rapport


The Danger of the Nice Personality

  • Have you ever met a nice person, but the “bells have gone off?”
  • Charisma draws in but not always to desired ends. e.g., Hitler, Jim Jones.
  • Empathy can be faked; so can other emotions.


The Development of EQ

  • A genetic contribution is likely
  • They are not destiny (timidity)
  • Early expression of emotion by parents helps learning
  • Early abuse hinders learning
  • Poor ability to read others’ emotion may lead to the development of poor social skills.



Some Gender Differences


More willing to compromise social connectedness for independence

Not as good as women at this

Less adept than women overall

More physiologically overwhelmed by marital conflict

  • Greater need for connectedness
  • Have a wider range of emotions
  • Better at reading emotions
  • Better at developing social strategies overall
  • Perhaps more engaged in marital conflict



Emotion Related Dysfunction


  • all or nothing thinking
  • overgeneralization
  • excessive worrying
  • worrying as magical thinking
  • disqualifying the position
  • jumping to negative conclusions
  • “should” statements
  • labeling & mislabeling
  • personalization
  • stonewalling
  • criticism; contempt
  • Impacts on physical health:
      • cardiovascular disease
      • progression of diabetes
      • progression of cancer
      • onset of hypertension
  • Impacts on relationships
  • Impacts on mental health


Dysfunction at Work

  • Is the person in the wrong job?
  • Does the job require the person to be difficult?
  • What is remarkable about the group dynamics of the organization?
  • What about individuals, personal and interpersonal?


Some Business Examples:

  • Airlines are similar in price structure. The competitive edge = how well personnel treats passengers
  • Others/Yours?–Implementing credit card use–Getting contractors paid when the system won’t work–ABC; JLIMS


Importance of EQ in Organizations

  • The higher you go, the more EI matters–the more social competence matters
  • SES ECQ’s:–influence, communication, leadership, change catalyst, conflict management, building bonds, collaboration and cooperation; team capabilities
  • Army Values:–leadership, duty, respect, selfless service, honor, integrity, personal courage


Importance of EQ to Organizations, too

  • 50% of work satisfaction is determined by the relationship a worker has with… his/her boss.
  • EI is a prerequisite for effective leadership across borders.–Requires a high level of self-mastery and people skills; ability to put yourself into the positions of others.


What is Training in EQ Worth?

  • Increases retention.
  • Decreases absenteeism.
  • Increases overall organizational growth.Could increase production as much as 20% Current estimates to American Business:
  • Losing between $5.6 and $16.8 Billion annually

If we knew nothing about a store except that employee attitudes had improved 5%,

we could predict that its revenue would rise.5% above what it otherwise would have been.

–Sears executive, Harvard Business Review, January, 1998



Nine Strategies for Promoting Emotional Intelligence

There are instruments to measure “EQ”…

  • Take time for mindfulness
  • Recognize and name emotions
  • Understanding the causes of feelings
  • Differentiate having emotion and the need to take action
  • Learn optimism to challenge distortion
  • Managing anger through learned distraction techniques
  • Listen to voice of experience
  • Develop Listening skills


Review Questions:

Check Your Understanding

      1. What is the difference between men and women’s EQ?
        1. Men’s EQ is higher than women’s.
        2. Women’s EQ is higher than men’s.
        3. Men are better at reading emotion.
        4. Women have no need for contentedness.
      2. How many components of EQ are there?
  1.  10.
  2.  2.
  3. 32.
  4.  5.


Personality Test

Who are you and how are you perceived?

Answer for who you are now…… not who you were in the past

1. When do you feel at your best?

    1. in the morning
    2. during the afternoon and early evening
    3. late at night

2. You usually walk....

    1. fairly fast, with long steps
    2. fairly fast, with little steps
    3. less fast head up, looking the world in the face
    4. less fast, head down
    5. very slowly

3. When talking to people, you…

  1. stand with your arms folded
  2. have your hands clasped
  3. have one or both your hands on your hips or in pockets
  4. touch or push the person to whom you are talking
  5. play with your ear, touch your chin or smooth your hair


4. When relaxing, you sit with…

    1. your knees bent with your legs neatly side by side
    2. your legs crossed
    3. your legs stretched out or straight
    4. one leg curled under you

5. When something really amuses you, you react with…

    1. a big appreciated laugh
    2. a laugh, but not a loud one
    3. a quiet chuckle
    4. a sheepish smile

6. When you go to a party or social gathering, you…

    1. make a loud entrance so everyone notices you
    2. make a quiet entrance, looking around for someone you know
    3. make the quietest entrance, trying to stay unnoticed

7. When you’re working or concentrating very hard, and you’re interrupted, you…

  1. welcome the break
  2. feel extremely irritated
  3. vary between these two extremes


8. Which of the following colors do you like most?

    1. Red or orange
    2. black
    3. yellow or light blue
    4. green
    5. dark blue or purple
    6. white
    7. brown or gray

9. When you are in bed at night, in those last few moments before going to sleep, you lie…

    1. stretched out on your back
    2. stretched out face down on your stomach
    3. on your side, slightly curled
    4. with your head on one arm or with your head under the covers

10. You often dream that you are…

  1. falling
  2. fighting or struggling
  3. searching for something or somebody
  4. flying or floating
  5. you usually have dreamless sleep
  6. your dreams are always pleasant


Calculating Your Answer

Please find attached the points for each answer. After you complete your answers calculate the total points


1. (a) 2 (b) 4 (c) 6

2. (a) 6 (b) 4 (c) 7 (d) 2 (e) 1

3. (a) 4 (b) 2 (c) 5 (d) 7 (e) 6

4. (a) 4 (b) 6 (c) 2 (d) 1

5. (a) 6 (b) 4 (c) 3 (d) 5 (e) 2

6. (a) 6 (b) 4 (c) 2

7. (a) 6 (b) 2 (c) 4

8. (a) 6 (b) 7 (c) 5 (d) 4 (e) 3 (f) 2 (g) 1

9. (a) 7 (b) 6 (c) 4 (d) 2 (e) 1

10. (a) 4 (b) 2 (c) 3 (d) 5 (e) 6 (f) 1

YOUR Total Points 


Others see you as someone they should “handle with care.” You’re seen as vain, self-centered and one who is extremely domineering. Others may admire you, wishing they could be more like you, but don’t always trust you, hesitating to become too deeply involved with you.

51 TO 60 POINTS:

Others see you as an exciting, highly volatile, rather impulsive personality; a natural leader, one who’s quick to make decisions, though not always the right ones. They see you as bold and adventuresome, someone who will try anything once; someone who takes chances and enjoys an adventure. They enjoy being in your company because of the excitement

41 TO 50 POINTS:

Others see you as fresh, lively, charming, amusing, practical and always interesting; someone who’s constantly in the center of attention, but sufficiently well-balanced not to let it go to their head. They also see

you as kind, considerate, and understanding; someone who’ll always cheer them up and help them out.

31 TO 40 POINTS:

Others see you as sensible, cautious, careful and practical. They see you as clever, gifted, or talented, but modest. Not a person who makes friends too quickly or easily, but someone who’s extremely loyal to friends you

do make and who expect the same loyalty in return. Those who really get to know you realize it takes a lot to shake your trust in your friends, but equally that it takes you a long time to get over it if that trust is ever broken.

21 TO 30 POINTS:

Your friends see you as painstaking and fussy. They see you as very cautious, extremely careful, a slow and steady plodder. It would really surprise them if you ever did something impulsively or on the spur of the

moment, expecting you to examine everything carefully from every angle and then usually decide against it. They think this reaction is caused partly by your careful nature.


People think you are shy, nervous, and indecisive, someone who needs looking after, who always wants someone else to make the decisions and who doesn’t want to get involved with anyone or anything! They see you as a worrier who always sees problems that don’t exist. Some people think you’re boring.

Only those who know you well know that you aren’t.

Learning Style – Self-Evaluation

Self-Assessment Questionnaire

Circle or tick the answer that most represents how you generally behave. (It’s best to complete the questionnaire before reading the accompanying explanation.)

  1. When I operate new equipment, I generally:
    1. read the instructions first
    2. listen to an explanation from someone who has used it before
    3. go ahead and have a go, I can figure it out as I use it
  2. When I need directions for travelling, I usually:
    1. look at a map
    2. ask for spoken directions
    3. follow my nose and maybe use a compass
  3. When I cook a new dish, I like to:
    1. follow a written recipe
    2. call a friend for an explanation
    3. follow my instincts, testing as I cook
  4. If I am teaching someone something new, I tend to:
    1. write instructions down for them
    2. give them a verbal explanation
    3. demonstrate first and then let them have a go
  5. I tend to say:
    1. watch how I do it
    2. listen to me explain
    3. you have a go
  6. During my free time, I most enjoy:
    1. going to museums and galleries
    2. listening to music and talking to my friends
    3. playing sport or doing DIY
  7. When I go shopping for clothes, I tend to:
    1. imagine what they would look like on
    2. discuss them with the shop staff
    3. try them on and test them out
  8. When I am choosing a holiday I usually:
    1. read lots of brochures
    2. listen to recommendations from friends
    3. imagine what it would be like to be there
  9. If I was buying a new car, I would:
    1. read reviews in newspapers and magazines
    2. discuss what I need with my friends
    3. test-drive lots of different types
  10. When I am learning a new skill, I am most comfortable:
    1. watching what the teacher is doing
    2. talking through with the teacher exactly what I’m supposed to do
    3. giving it a try myself and work it out as I go
  11. If I am choosing food off a menu, I tend to:
    1. imagine what the food will look like
    2. talk through the options in my head or with my partner
    3. imagine what the food will taste like
  12. When I listen to a band, I can’t help:
    1. watching the band members and other people in the audience
    2. listening to the lyrics and the beats
    3. moving in time with the music
  13. When I concentrate, I most often:
    1. focus on the words or the pictures in front of me
    2. discuss the problem and the possible solutions in my head
    3. move around a lot, fiddle with pens and pencils and touch things
  14. I choose household furnishings because I like:
    1. their colours and how they look
    2. the descriptions the sales-people give me
    3. their textures and what it feels like to touch them
  15. My first memory is of:
    1. looking at something
    2. being spoken to
    3. doing something
  16. When I am anxious, I:
    1. visualize the worst-case scenarios
    2. talk over in my head what worries me most
    3. can’t sit still, fiddle and move around constantly
  17. I feel especially connected to other people because of:
    1. how they look
    2. what they say to me
    3. how they make me feel
  18. When I have to revise for an exam, I generally:
    1. write lots of revision notes and diagrams
    2. talk over my notes, alone or with other people
    3. imagine making the movement or creating the formula
  19. If I am explaining to someone, I tend to:
    1. show them what I mean
    2. explain to them in different ways until they understand
    3. encourage them to try and talk them through my idea as they do it
  20. I really love:
    1. watching films, photography, looking at art or people watching
    2. listening to music, the radio or talking to friends
    3. taking part in sporting activities, eating fine foods and wines or dancing
  21. Most of my free time is spent:
    1. watching television
    2. talking to friends
    3. doing physical activity or making things
  22. When I first contact a new person, I usually:
    1. arrange a face to face meeting
    2. talk to them on the telephone
    3. try to get together whilst doing something else, such as an activity or a meal
  23. I first notice how people:
    1. look and dress
    2. sound and speak
    3. stand and move
  24. If I am angry, I tend to:
    1. keep replaying in my mind what it is that has upset me
    2. raise my voice and tell people how I feel
    3. stamp about, slam doors and physically demonstrate my anger
  25. I find it easiest to remember:
    1. faces
    2. names
    3. things I have done
  26. I think that you can tell if someone is lying if:
    1. they avoid looking at you
    2. their voices changes
    3. they give me funny vibes
  27. When I meet an old friend:
    1. I say “it’s great to see you!”
    2. I say “it’s great to hear from you!”
    3. I give them a hug or a handshake
  28. I remember things best by:
    1. writing notes or keeping printed details
    2. saying them aloud or repeating words and key points in my head
    3. doing and practising the activity or imagining it being done
  29. If I have to complain about faulty goods, I am most comfortable:
    1. writing a letter
    2. complaining over the phone
    3. taking the item back to the store or posting it to head office
  30. I tend to say:
    1. I see what you mean
    2. I hear what you are saying
    3. I know how you feel

Now add up how many A’s, B’s and C’s you selected.

A’s =             B’s =              C’s =


Learning Style – Self-Evaluation

  • If you chose mostly A’s you have a VISUAL learning style.
  • If you chose mostly B’s you have an AUDITORY learning style.
  • If you chose mostly C’s you have a KINAESTHETIC learning style.

Some people find that their learning style may be a blend of two or three styles, in this case read about the styles that apply to you in the explanation below.

When you have identified your learning style(s), read the learning styles explanations and consider how this might help you to identify learning and development that best meets your preference(s).

VAK Learning Styles Explanation

The VAK learning styles model suggests that most people can be divided into one of three preferred styles of learning. These three styles are as follows, (and there is no right or wrong learning style):

  • Someone with a Visual learning style prefers seen or observed things, including pictures, diagrams, demonstrations, displays, handouts, films, flip-chart, etc. These people will use phrases such as ‘show me’, ‘let’s have a look at that’ and will be best able to perform a new task after reading the instructions or watching someone else do it first. These are the people who will work from lists and written directions and instructions.
  • Someone with an Auditory learning style prefers the transfer of information through listening: to the spoken word, of self or others, of sounds and noises. These people will use phrases such as ‘tell me’, ‘let’s talk it over’ and will be best able to perform a new task after listening to instructions from an expert. These are the people who are happy being given spoken instructions over the telephone, and can remember all the words to songs that they hear!
  • Someone with a Kinesthetic learning style prefers physical experience – touching, feeling, holding, doing, and practical hands-on experiences. These people will use phrases such as ‘let me try’, ‘how do you feel?’ and will be best able to perform a new task by going ahead and trying it out, learning as they go. These are the people who like to experiment, hands-on, and never look at the instructions first!

People commonly have a main preferred learning style, but this will be part of a blend of all three. Some people have a very strong preference; other people have a more even mixture of two or less commonly, three styles.

When you know your preferred learning style(s) you understand the type of learning that best suits you. This enables you to choose the types of learning that work best for you.

There is no right or wrong learning style. The point is that there are types of learning that are right for your own preferred learning style.

Please note that this is not a scientifically validated testing instrument – it is a free assessment tool designed to give a broad indication of preferred learning style(s).




20 בJuly 2020


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